Resource Library

Apologetics

Selected Topics

'Private Interpretation' in the Church Fathers

A collection of texts that shows how the Church Fathers fought heresies that stemmed from trying to interpret the Bible apart from the Church and the Tradition. By Joseph Gallegos.

'Sola Scriptura' in the Early Church

An interesting collection of texts showing the confusion caused by those rare preachers in the early Church who insisted on appealing to Scripture alone. By Joseph Gallegos.

A History of the Word “Catholic”

Good summary by Steven Ray.

A Primer on Indulgences

A good overview by James Akin.

A Saints FAQ

Ever wonder how many saints there are, how they get chosen and whatever happened to St. Christopher? This is the place you’ve been looking for.

All Scripture

Jeff Cavins helps us see the forest for the trees - a fine look at the single theme that ties the Bible all together.

All The Popes

A handy list.

Avoiding Biblical Paralysis: Sacred Scripture and the Modern Catholic

Curtis Martin's call for a return to the Church's way of reading the Bible. A good introduction to the topic.

Beatification and Canonization

A good historical explanation, from The Catholic Encyclopedia.

Biblical Overview of Penance, Purgatory and Indulgences

Concise treatment by Dave Armstrong.

Catholic Biblical Apologetics: Apologetics Without Apology!

An excellent collection of resources on questions ranging from salvation to annulments.

Catholic Doctrinal Concordance

A good quick reference.

Catholic Evangelism

A good site, with an emphasis on the biblical basis of Catholic belief.

Catholic FAQs #1

A handy guide to frequently asked questions concerning the faith. -Catholic FAQs #2

Catholic Online Saints

Probably the largest listing of saints on the internet. An excellent resource. Be sure to check out these other offerings from Catholic Online: - Patron Saints - Saints Calendar

Church Fathers on Being “Born Again”

This set of passages from the Church Fathers shows that they equated baptism with being “born again,” as Jesus put it in John 3. By Joseph Gallegos.

Church Fathers on Christ’s Real Presence in the Eucharist

A collection of texts illustrating the Church Fathers’ “realist” view of the Eucharist. By Joseph Gallegos.

Church Fathers on Infant Baptism

A collection of documents illustrating the practice of infant baptism in the early Church. By Joseph Gallegos.

Church Fathers on Purgatory

Texts from the early Church that show belief in the existence of Purgatory.

Church Fathers on the 'Catholic Bible'

A good collection of quotes showing how the Church Fathers, to varying degrees, came to embrace the larger Old Testament that now makes up the Catholic version of sacred Scripture. By Joseph Gallegos.

Church Fathers on the Assumption of Mary

Documents illustrating early belief in the bodily assumption of Mary. By Joseph Gallegos.

Church Fathers on the Canon of Scripture

These documents from the early Church illustrate the belief that only the appointed authorities of the Church can determine which books belong in the "canon." By Joseph Gallegos.

Church Fathers on the Immaculate Conception

Documents illustrating that Mary was conceived without the stain of original sin. By Joseph Gallegos.

Church Fathers on the Intercession of the Blessed Virgin Mary

Devotion and intercession of the Blessed Virgin Mary is shown to be a common expression in the writings of the Church Fathers. By Joseph Gallegos.

Church Fathers on the Meaning of Apostolic Succession

This collection of texts shows that the Church Fathers believed that the teachers of the Catholic Church - the Pope and the Bishops - are connected to the Apostles by succession of office. By Joseph Gallegos.

Church Fathers on the Mother of God (Theotokos)

Documents illustrating that the Church Fathers believed Mary was truly the Mother of God. By Joseph Gallegos.

Church Fathers on the Sacrament of Confirmation

A collection of passages by Joseph Gallegos.

Church Fathers on the Sacrament of Extreme Unction (Anointing of the Sick)

Texts that show that the early Church believed in the sacramental nature of the anointing of the sick. By Joseph Gallegos.

Church Fathers on the Sacrament of Holy Matrimony

A collection of texts that shows the early belief that Christ elevated marriage to a sacrament. By Joseph Gallegos.

Church Fathers on the Sacrament of Holy Orders

These texts show the Church Fathers’ assumption that Christ wanted a ministerial priesthood. By Joseph Gallegos.

Church Fathers on the Sacrament of Penance

This collection of texts illustrates the practice of priests hearing confessions in the early Church. By Joseph Gallegos.

Church Fathers on Transubstantiation

These documents illustrate the ancient roots of Catholic belief in the way the bread and wine are changed into Christ’s body and blood.

Church Fathers on Veneration and Invocation of the Saints

A selection of texts that shows the Church Fathers invoking the saints’ intercession in prayer, naming children after them, creating statues and images of them, and preserving their relics. By Joseph Gallegos.

Church Fathers on Veneration of the Blessed Virgin Mary

A collection of texts that shows how veneration of the Blessed Virgin Mary is a recurring theme in the writings of the Church Fathers. By Joseph Gallegos.

Communion as Reunion: The Eucharist

Scott Hahn explains how in the Eucharist, the holy sacrifice of the Mass, Christ gives Himself to His people and establishes the New Covenant.

Doctrinal Comparison

Compares the teaching of the Bible and the early Church Fathers with the teachings of the Catholic Church and with various Protestant denominations.

Eucharist, Holy Meal

Scott Hahn brings to life the biblical background of the Eucharist as a sacrifice and as the establishment of the New Covenant. Focusing on the Biblical concept of covenant, he explains how the Eucharist is the way in which God swears His final and eternal promise to His children.

Five Myths about Seven Books

Mark Shea does a good job debunking Protestant arguments against the "Catholic" Bible.

Going on Vocation: Marriage and Holy Orders

Scott Hahn explores the meaning of these sacraments and offers biblically based advice for young men considering the priesthood and young couples pursuing marriage.

Grace is For-Giving and For-Getting

The sacraments, Scott Hahn explains, are the solemn oaths by which God binds human beings to Himself and makes of them a holy family. He provides an overview of the seven sacraments and their function in God’s family plan.

History of the Doctrine of Penance

Solid history. By Dave Armstrong.

History of the Doctrine of Purgatory

A good survey. By Dave Armstrong.

History of the Doctrine of the Eucharist

A good survey by Dave Armstrong.

History of the Doctrine of the Sacrifice of the Mass

A good survey by Dave Armstrong.

Holy Healing: Penance and Anointing of the Sick

Scott Hahn shows how these sacraments offer spiritual healing.

Holy Healing: Penance and Anointing of the Sick

Scott Hahn shows how these sacraments offer spiritual healing.

How To Explain Purgatory to Protestants

James Akin’s solid approach.

Infallibility

From The Catholic Encyclopedia, an excellent overview of the history and true meaning of this teaching.

Interpreting Scripture in the Church Fathers

A good look at the Church Fathers' approach, drawn from their writings. By Joseph Gallegos.

Justification in Catholic Teaching

By James Akin, a solid review. See also, by Akin: - Justification By Christ Alone - Not By Faith Alone - Salvation, Past, Present and Future

Mary’s Perpetual Virginity in the Church Fathers

Mary was considered ever-virgin in the faith of the Church Fathers, as this collection of texts illustrates. By Joseph Gallegos.

Mary’s Perpetual Virginity: From the Bible to the Reformation

A helpful historical overview that reminds us that the early Reformers shared the traditional Catholic belief that Mary was “ever virgin.”

Mary, Ark of the Covenant

Scott Hahn continues a study of the ways Mary was foretold and prefigured in the Old Testament.

Mary, Holy Mother

Dr. Scott Hahn, founder of The St. Paul Center for Biblical Theology, explains the biblical roots of the Church’s Marian doctrines, focusing on the Books of Genesis and Isaiah.

Peter in Rome

Documents from the Church Fathers illustrating St. Peter's presence in Rome. By Joseph Gallegos.

Peter in the Church Fathers

A collection of texts from the Church Fathers showing St. Peter’s importance and place. By Joseph Gallegos.

Primacy of the Apostolic See in Papal Thought

Documents illustrating the self-claimed authority of the Bishop of Rome. By Joseph Gallegos.

Primacy of the Apostolic See in the Church Fathers

Documents from the Church Fathers showing that the Bishop of Rome had “jurisdictional primacy” in the Church. By Joseph Gallegos.

Purgatory in the Bible

A good consideration of the Scriptural evidence.

Purgatory, Holy Fire

Dr. Scott Hahn, founder of The St. Paul Center for Biblical Theology, explains the Scriptural roots of this misunderstood doctrine, showing how necessary it is to understanding Christ's redemptive work in salvation.

Purgatory, Holy Fire

Dr. Scott Hahn, founder of The St. Paul Center for Biblical Theology, explains the Scriptural roots of this misunderstood doctrine, showing how necessary it is to understanding Christ's redemptive work in salvation.

Sacrament of Penance in the Early Church

A short selection of writings from early Church documents, with commentary by Father William Most.

Saints, Holy Siblings

Approaching veneration of the saints from a biblical perspective, Scott Hahn begins with the Book of Hebrews and the "Old Testament Hall of Fame." He explains how the saints are members of God's family in heaven, the "older siblings" of God's sons and daughters on earth.

Saved in Scripture

By Father William Most. A short, thoughtful look at key Bible texts.

Scriptural Reference Guide

A good guide from Catholic Answers

Signed, Sealed & Delivered: Baptism and Confirmation

Scott Hahn shows how through these two sacraments human beings respond to the divine promise of covenant by pledging themselves to God in Christ.

Sola Gratia, Solo Christo: The Roman Catholic Doctrine of Justification

A look at the Catholic understanding of justification from the perspective of an evangelical protestant. By Richard A. White.

Sola Scriptura: A Blueprint for Anarchy

Patrick Madrid says the Protestant doctrine of "Scripture alone" is unhistorical, unbiblical and unworkable.

The Authority of Scripture in the Church Fathers

A collection of quotes that shows the Church Fathers believed that Scripture could not be isolated from the tradition of the Church. By Joseph Gallegos.

The Bible and the Assumption of Mary

A helpful historical overview.

The Bible and the Church: Both or Neither

Dr. Scott Hahn, founder of The St. Paul Center for Biblical Theology, shows in this excerpt from The Catholic Adult Education Program how the Bible and the Church go together like flesh and blood.

The Church Fathers on Scripture

Short quotes, well organized.

The Church Fathers on the Meaning of “Catholic”

A collection of writings from the Church Fathers that demonstrates their belief that the Church is a visible, authoritative institution, outside of which no person can be saved. By Joseph Gallegos.

The Church is Apostolic

Scott Hahn focuses on one of the unique claims of the Catholic Church: that it represents a real, unbroken chain of authentic oral teaching and power that extends back 2,000 years to the Apostles

The Church is Catholic

Scott Hahn explains the origin and the meaning of the word "Catholic" and why the Church is intended to be the universal community of all believers guided by Christ through His appointed vicar on earth, the Holy Father.

The Church is Holy

Scott Hahn focuses on the holiness of the Catholic Church and on the role of the saints in the Mystical Body of Christ.

The Church is One

Scott Hahn explores why, unlike the various Protestant denominations, the Catholic Church has always emphasized its fundamental unity. Just as there is only One Faith, there is and always has been only One Church, One Lord and One God.

The Council of Trent and Justification

A good summary of the Church's official response to Martin Luther. By Father William Most.

The Divine Inspiration of Scripture in the Church Fathers

These quotes demonstrate how the Church Fathers affirmed the inspiration and divine origin of Sacred Scripture. By Joseph Gallegos.

The Early Church and the Bishop of Rome

A good historical survey by Dave Armstrong.

The Faith of Our Fathers

Father Hugh Barbour, O. Praem., points out the simple historical fact that the office of the Bishop of Rome has always been seen as the final authority in the Church.

The Fourth Cup

Scott Hahn takes a detailed look at what was really going on at the Last Supper.

The Immaculate Conception in Scripture and Tradition

A good overview.

The Justification Debate

Transcript of a debate between Dr. Scott Hahn, founder of The St. Paul Center for Biblical Theology, and Dr. Robert Knudson of Westminster Seminary. The original tape was distributed by Catholic Answers.

The Key To Understanding Mary

James Akin looks at the Biblical understanding of Mary as the “New Eve.”

The Lamb's Supper

Scott Hahn explains the Catholic Mass as a biblical prayer that unites heaven and earth, angels and men, all of creation in an eternal hymn of praise to God.

The Meaning of Sacraments

Dr. Scott Hahn, founder of The St. Paul Center for Biblical Theology, explores the roots of the Catholic understanding of sacrament in the biblical conceptions of oath and covenant.

The Office of the New Testament Priest

A good consideration by James Akin.

The Papacy: God’s Gift to the Church

A good look at the biblical basis of the Church’s teaching. By James Akin.

The Pope, Holy Father

Dr. Scott Hahn on one of the most attacked and misunderstood teachings of the Church.

The Rule of Faith: Scripture and Tradition in the Church Fathers

A good collection of quotations.

The Sacrifice of the Mass in Scripture

A solid review of the biblical texts.

The Splendor of the Church

Dr. Scott Hahn, founder of The St. Paul Center for Biblical Theology, provides an overview of the Church, the Bride of Christ, the Family of God.

Tradition in the Church Fathers

An extensive collection of passages from the Church Fathers illustrating their belief in the authority of tradition. By Joseph Gallegos.

What is Papal Infallibility?

A good treatment by George Sim Johnston.

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