Resource Library

Scripture

Dr. Scott Hahn's Recent Academic Publications

A Broken Covenant and the Curse of Death: A Study of Hebrews 9:15-22

in The Catholic Biblical Quarterly 66.3 (July 2004), pp. 416-436.

Canon, Cult and Covenant.

Scripture and Hermeneutics Series 7: Canon and Biblical Interpretaion, ed. Craig G. Bartholomew et al. (Zondervan, 2006), pp. 209-235.

Christ, Kingdom and Creation in Luke-Acts

Creazione e salvezza nella Bibbia, ed. Marco Valerio Fabbri and Michelangelo Tábet. (Pontifica Università della Santa Croce, 2008), pp. 167-190.

Christ, Kingdom, and Creation: Davidic Christology and Ecclesiology in Luke-Acts,

Letter & Spirit: A Journal of Catholic Biblical Theology 3 (2007), pp. 113-138.

Covenant in the Old and New Testaments: Some Current Research (1994–2004)

Currents in Biblical Research 3.2 (2005), pp. 263-292.

Covenant Oath and the Aqedah: Diatheke in Galatians 3:15-18

Catholic Biblical Quarterly 67.1 (2005), pp. 79-100.

Covenant, Cult, and the Curse-of-Death: Diatheke in Hebrews 9:15-22

in Hebrews: Contemporary Methods - New Insights, ed. Gabriella Gelardini (Leiden: Brill, 2005).

First Comes Love: The Family Spirit (appendix)

Those who are interested in what Dr. Hahn has written about the Holy Spirit may read an online version of the revised and expanded chapter from First Comes Love (pp.152-174), including Sources and References (pp. 201-213). Posted here with the kind permission of Doubleday Random House.

For the Sake of Our Salvation: The Truth and Humility of God’s Word

Letter & Spirit: A Journal of Catholic Biblical Theology 6 (2010), pp. 13–50

Kingdom and Church in Luke-Acts: From Davidic Christology to Kingdom Ecclesiology

in Reading Luke: Interpretation, Reflections, Formation Scripture and Hermeneutics Series VI; eds., Craig Bartholomew, Joel Green, Anthony Thiselton (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2005), pp. 294-326.

Liturgy and Empire: Faith in Exile and Prophetic Historiography in 1 and 2 Chronicles

Letter & Spirit: A Journal of Catholic Biblical Theology 5 (2009), pp. 13–50.

Noah’s Nakedness and the Curse on Canaan (Genesis 9:20-27)

with John Seitze Bergsma, Journal of Biblical Literature 124.1 (Spring 2005), pp. 25-40.

On the Task of Interpreting Scripture

Scripture and the Liturgy: Inseparably United

in Origins 35.39 (March 16, 2006), pp. 648-653.

Temple, Sign, and Sacrament: Towards a New Perspective on the Gospel of John

Letter & Spirit: A Journal of Catholic Biblical Theology 4 (2008), pp. 107–143.

The Authority of Mystery: The Biblical Theology of Pope Benedict XVI

Letter & Spirit: A Journal of Catholic Biblical Theology 2 (2006), pp. 97-140.

What Laws Were Not Good: A Canonical Approach to the Theological Problem of Ezekiel 20:25-26

with John Bergsma, Journal of Biblical Literature 123.2 (2004), pp. 201-218

Worship in the Word: Toward a Liturgical Hermeneutic

Letter & Spirit: A Journal of Catholic Biblical Theology 1 (2005), pp. 101-136.

Historical and Literary Study

The Catechism of the Catholic Church

This excellent site, sponsored by St. Charles Borromeo Parish, enables you to view the text of the Catechism of the Catholic Church and to look up passages in the Catechism's table of contents and in its index.

The Church and the Bible

"He Interpreted to Them in All the Scriptures the Things Concerning Himself"

A good study of exegesis by Dr. Arthur Just, Jr., a Lutheran. A quote: "At the center of our hermeneutical task is the understanding that exegesis is always kerygmatic and therefore homiletical, and that to interpret Scriptures rightly requires a proper hermeneutical method that reflects a Biblical theology of preaching. As a result, to confess our preaching as Viva vox Jesu is to also speak of the Christocentricity of the Holy Scripture." (.pdf files, requires free Adobe Acrobat Reader.)

A Meaning Worthy of God: Origen and Biblical Integrity

An overview of Origen's approach to Scripture.

A Pastoral Statement for Catholics on Biblical Fundamentalism

A statement that is not often cited, but remains relevant. Written in 1987 by a committee of U.S. bishops, it stresses the liturgical context in which the Church gives us the Word of God. Especially important is the document's conclusion: "We need a pastoral plan for the word of God that will place the Sacred Scriptures at the heart of the parish and individual life. Pastoral creativity can develop approaches such as weekly Bible study groups and yearly Bible schools in every parish. We need to have the introduction to each Bible reading prepared and presented by the lector in a way that shows familiarity with and love for the sacred text....We need a familiar quoting of the Bible by every catechist, lector, and minister...We need to educate - to re-educate - our people knowingly in the Bible..."

Address to the Pontifical Biblical Commission (April 23, 1993)

The Holy Father calls that biblical interpretation a "heartfelt concern," and adds: "The interpretation of Sacred Scripture is of capital importance for the Christian faith and the Church's life." A remarkable, and largely overlooked statement. See especially the Pope's vigorous critique of fundamentalism (no. 8) and this definition of the task of exegesis - "First and foremost, it must help the Christian people more dearly perceive the word of God in these texts so that they can better accept them in order to live in full communion with God" (no. 9). Repays a careful reading.

An Attempt to Establish an Historically Accurate Definition of "Typology"

An interesting overview of the history of the term and its use in the Bible and the writings of the Fathers.

Aphraates (4th Century)

- Demonstrations I, VI, VII, VIII, X, XVII, XXI, XXII

Athanasius (d. 373)

- On the Incarnation of the Word- On Luke 10:22/Matthew 11:27

Augustine Day-By-Day

Good selections from the master commentator. By the Augustinians of Villonova University.

Biblical Interpretation in Crisis: On the Question of the Foundations and Approaches of Exegesis Tod

Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger's famous Erasmus Lecture of Jan. 27, 1988. His conclusions remain as important today as ever: "Finally, the exegete must realize that he, does not stand in some neutral area, above or outside history and the Church. Such a presumed immediacy regarding the purely historical can only lead to dead ends. The first presupposition of all exegesis is that it accepts the Bible as a book. In so doing, it has already chosen a place for itself which does not simply follow from the study of literature. It has identified this particular literature as the product of a coherent history, and this history as the proper space for coming to understanding. If it wishes to be theology, it must take a further step. It must recognize that the faith of the Church is that form of "sympathia" without which the Bible remains a closed book. It must come to acknowledge this faith as a hermeneutic, the space for understanding, which does not do dogmatic violence to the Bible, but precisely allows the solitary possibility for the Bible to be itself."

Can We Reproduce the Exegesis of the New Testament?

An interesting meditation by an evangelical student.

Catholic Principles for Interpreting Scripture

A detailed summary by Peter Williamson of his comprehensive study Catholic Principles for Interpreting Scripture: A Study of the Pontifical Biblical Commission's "The Interpretation of the Bible in the Church," published in 2001. An indispensable aid to understanding the IBC document.

Catholicism and the Bible

A key interview with Father Albert Vanhoye, former head of the Pontifical Biblical Commission on key issues in Catholic interpretation of Scripture. Originally published in the journal First Things.

Council of Trent

Decrees Concerning the Canon and Use of Scripture from the Church Council of 1546. In Latin and English.

Crisis in Scripture Studies

A critique of the excesses of "historical-criticism" that along the way provides a neat overview of the history of biblical interpretation. By Father William Most. See also, by the Roman Theological Forum: - Catholic Bishops of the 1980s: Attitudes to Scripture and Theology

Current Doctrinal Relevance of the Catechism of the Catholic Church

An important reflection by Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger, head of the Vatican's Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith. See especially the long section on the Catechism's treatment of Scripture. This is must-reading.

Dei Verbum 35 Years Later

An excellent summary of the Church's teachings on the Bible by Denver Archbishop Charles J. Chaput, O.F.M. Cap., which concludes with practical suggestions for lay people about reading, studying and praying with the Bible. Highly recommended.

Didascalia Apostolorum (ca. 3rd century)

"The Catholic Teaching of the Twelve Apostles" is a goldmine of early Church insights into the interpretation of the Old and New Testaments. Highly recommended. Kudos to the invaluable Bombaxo.com for making this rare translation available.

Dogmatic Constitution on Divine Revelation (Dei Verbum)

Vatican II's Dogmatic Constitution on Divine Revelation. The "magna carta" of the Church's teaching on Scripture.

Dogmatic Constitution on the Catholic Faith (Dei Filus)

Vatican I's definition of the truth of Revelation, and Scripture and Tradition as the sources of Revelation.

Early Church Fathers on the Sanctity of Human Life

A good selection that demonstrates conclusively that Christian concern with unborn life started in the very beginning. From Byzantines.net.

Eusebius of Caesarea (d. 340)

- *The Proof of the Gospel (Argues in detail that the coming of Christ marked the fulfillment of the Old Testament promises.)

Gregory the Great's Commentary on the Song of Songs

Translated by Cassian DelCogliano, OCSO, of St. Joseph's Abbey.

Hermeneutics and Biblical Authority

A good study of the inspiration and authority of Scripture from an evangelical perspective. By James Packer, a leading evangelical scholar. Another good piece from a Protestant perspective is: - Origins of Modern Attacks on Biblical Authority

Historical-Critical Scripture Studies and the Catholic Faith

A good appraisal by St. Paul Center fellow, Michael Waldstein of the International Theological Institute.

Holy Scripture Is the Library of God

A fine testimony by Irish bishop Bishop Donald Herlihy of Ferns (d. 1983), who argues that we do not love Scripture enough because we do not know enough about it: "It is with a certain degree of hesitancy that we proclaim our love for Holy Writ. We hesitate because our knowledge of Sacred Scripture is limited and love is always proportioned to knowledge. We know all too little about the Bible. We know all too little about the part it plays in the life and prayer of the Church."

How Can the Bible Be Authoritative?

A good defense of Scripture and its authority and inspiration by N.T. Wright, top Scripture scholar and Anglican bishop of Durham, England. See also Bishop Wright's: - The Bible for the Post-Modern World - Resurrection Faith, History and Belief

Interpreting Texts in the Context of the Whole Bible

A thoughtful piece by a Protestant scholar. A quote: "It is not coincidence that the Old and New Testaments are bound in one volume. The God who reveals himself in the Old Testament is the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ. The New Testament recounts the fulfilment of promises made centuries beforehand. So the two Testaments form one historical and theological work, in which each event and word can only be understood fully when interpreted in the context of the whole; and the whole can only be rightly interpreted in the light of its central event and Word, Jesus Christ."

Jean Levie and the Biblical Movement

A good critical look at the development and directions of Catholic biblical scholarship in the years before Vatican II. By Msgr. John McCarthy of the Roman Theological Forum. Also instructive is his series on the "incomplete" Catholic response to the "de-mythologizing" movement started by the liberal Protestant exegete, Rudolph Bultmann in the 1940s and 1950s: - Part 1: Leopold Malevez and Heinrich Fries - Part 2: Rene Marle and Joseph Cahill - Part 3: Xavier Leon-Dufour and John McKenzie - Part 4: Anton Vogtle and Ugo Lattanzi

Lectio Divina and Paul Ricoeur's Hermeneutic Philosophy

A good introduction to Ricoeur's thought and its promise - and limitations - for Christian study of the Bible. By a Reformed pastor, Rev. Michael J. Pahls. (pdf files, requires free Adobe Acrobat Reader.)

Neo-Patristic Exegesis

An ambitious effort to sketch a new synthesis between historical and theological methods in the interpretation of Scripture. By Msgr. John McCarthy of the Roman Theological Forum. Includes: - The State of the Question - A Neo-Patristic Reply to the Historical-Critical Question

Newman and the Study of the Church Fathers

An interesting piece that looks especially at the Fathers' importance for understanding the Scriptures. By Father Thomas McGovern.

Norms for the Translation of Biblical Texts for Use in the Liturgy

A 1995 statement by the Vatican's Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith.

On Promoting Biblical Studies (Divino Afflante Spiritu)

Pope Pius XII's 1943 encyclical letter on promoting biblical studies. The first two lines of the document are a striking confession of the Church's faith in the Bible as a "heaven-sent treasure" that the Church has used "diligently as an instrument for securing the eternal salvation of souls."

On St. Jerome (Spiritus Paraclitus)

This 1920 encyclical letter of Pope Benedict XV on the legacy of St. Jerome includes a wealth of patristic quotes on the sacred Scriptures as well as a pointed observation on how Christ, in his preaching, "took his points and arguments from the Bible." For background on the encyclical and its continued relevance: - The Encyclical Spiritus Paraclitus in its Historical Context and Part 2 (by the Roman Theological Forum)

On the Study of Holy Scripture (Providentissimus Deus)

Pope Leo XIII's 1893 encyclical letter.

Pontifical Biblical Commission: Yesterday and Today.

Since 1971, the Pontifical Biblical Commission (PBC) is no longer an official organ of the Catholic Church. It is a consultative body of scholars whose conclusions are looked to with great respect by the Church. For a survey, see:

Pope Paul VI and the Truth of Sacred Scripture

A good look at the approach of Pope Paul, whose teachings on Scripture are often neglected. An adaptation of a doctoral dissertation defended by Father Brian Harrison at the Pontifical Atheneum of the Holy Cross in Rome.

Pope St. Gregory the Great (d. 604)

- Moralia or Commentary on the Book of Job">Moralia or Commentary on the Book of Job - Last Page

Pope St. Leo the Great (d. 461)

- Homilies on the Nativity (Classics of biblical theology.) - Nativity II - Nativity III - Nativity IV - Nativity VI - Nativity VII - Nativity VIII - Homilies on the Epiphany ("A necessary sequel to the Nativity" sermons, says Leo. See: - Epiphany III - Epiphany IV - Epiphany VI - Homilies on Lent, Easter and Pentecost (The climax of salvation history, as preached by one of the great biblical interpreters in Church history.) - Lent II - Lent IV - Lent VII - Lent XI - The Transfiguration - On the Passion of the Lord III - Passion IV - Passion VII - Passion VIII - Passion XI - Passion XII - Passion XVI - Passion XVII - Holy Saturday - On the Resurrection - On the Ascension - Ascension II - On Pentecost - Pentecost II - Pentecost III - Feast of the Apostles Ss. Peter and Paul.

Reading Scripture with the Fathers of the Church

A excellent, well-organized collection of short selections from patristic sources. Be sure to see Maximus the Confessor on "Beyond the Literal Sense to the Deeper Meaning of Scripture." A quote: "The sacred Scripture, taken as a whole, is like a human being. The Old Testament is the body and the New is the soul, the meaning it contains, the spirit." (Editor's Note: This excellent site is hosted by an ecumenical group, and while we highly recommend the readings from the Fathers included, we would advise caution in reading other commentaries found on this site). Also on this site, meditations by the Fathers on: - Advent: Awaiting the Messiah - The Wonder of the Incarnation - The Cross of Jesus Christ - The Forty Days of Lent - News of the Resurrection! - The Promise of the Holy Spirit - The Fatherhood of God

Reading the Bible Today in the Land of the Bible

A pastoral letter by Latin Patriarch Michel Sabbah of Jerusalem, written in 1993.

Renewed Biblical Catechesis Will Lead to a More Incisive Promotion of Vocations

A remarkable essay by Pope John Paul II. A quote: "In fulfilling the plan of redemption, God wanted to ask mankind's collaboration. Sacred Scripture narrates the history of salvation as a history of vocations, in which the Lord's initiative and people's response have become intertwined. In fact, every vocation is born from the meeting of two freedoms: the divine and the human. Having been personally invited by the Word of God, the one called places himself or herself at his service."

Sacred Scripture in the Life of the Church

The first address on Scripture in the pontificate of Benedict XVI commemorates the 40th anniversary of Vatican II’s Dogmatic Constitution on Divine Revelation, Dei Verbum.

Scripture and Christology

A 1985 document that looks at the relationship between biblical interpretation and theology.

St. Augustine (d. 430)

- De Doctrina Christiana ("On Christian Doctrine" includes groundbreaking sections on biblical interpretation. See especially: Book I: Chapters 1-3; Book II: Chapters 1-26. Books III and IV explore these issues in detail.) - Our Lord's Sermon on the Mount - Harmony of the Gospels - Sermons on Selected Lessons of the New Testament. - Tractates on the Gospel of John - Ten Homilies on the First Epistle of John - Commentary on the Psalms.

St. Basil the Great (d. 379)

- On the Holy Spirit - Nine Homilies on the Formation of the World

St. Cyril of Jerusalem (d. 386)

- Catechetical Lectures

St. Irenaeus (d. 202)

- Against the Heresies (His masterwork.) - Demonstration of the Apostolic Preaching

St. John Chrysostom (d. 407)

- Homilies on Matthew or here - Homilies on John - Homilies on Acts - Homilies on Romans - Homilies on First Corinthians

St. Melito of Sardis (d. 180)

- On the Meaning of the Passover

The Allegorical Sense of Scripture

A good beginners' introduction to reading the "spiritual sense" of Scripture. From our friend Mark Shea's book, Making Senses Out of Scripture.

The Bible Gap

By Father Benedict Ashley, O.P. A quote: "Thus the abyss today opening between the Bible and theology, must be overcome by a type of exegesis that does not stop with historical and literary criticism but interprets the biblical text precisely as the Word of God redeeming our theological systems, not as re-written to conform to them. We must be instructed by God not instruct him."

The Divine Meaning of Human Scripture

A good study from Westminster Theological Journal.

The Early Church and Abortion

An impressive array of quotations from the Fathers of the Church and early Church Councils and manuals.

The Historicity of the Gospels

An important instruction, published in 1964, when the Commission was still an official organ of the Church. Hence it is regarded as reflecting official Catholic teaching.

The Influence of German Biblical Criticism on Muslim Apologetics in the 19th Century

A very interesting study by Dr. Christine Schirrmacher. A quote: "The aim of this paper is to trace the development of a new Muslim view of Christianity in the 19th century, which still has an enormous impact on today's Muslim apologetical works. The composition of anti-Christian books has changed in character due to the achievement of a different view of Christian dogmas and Christianity itself in the 19th century."

The Interpretation of the Bible in the Church

Published in 1993, this is a significant summary of the currents and tensions in Biblical interpretation. A must-read for understanding the state of exegesis in the Church today. For an excellent overview of this important document: - Catholic Principles for Interpreting Scripture

The Jewish People and Their Sacred Scriptures in the Christian Bible

This 2001 document is valuable for its summary of "shared themes" of the Old and New Testaments, among them: the revelation of God, the covenant and the law, the election of Israel and the cult of the Temple at Jerusalem.

The Need for and the Use of Doxological Language in Theology

Interesting study of the Cappadocian Fathers

The New Catechism and Scripture

Good review of the Catechism's treatment of the Bible, by Father Thomas McGovern. See too his examination of Vatican II's (and the Catechism's) directive that Scripture should be "the soul of theology": - Magisterium, Scripture and Catholic Exegetes

The Old Testament is Essential to Know Jesus

An Address by Pope John Paul II to the Pontifical Biblical Commission in 1997.

The Relationship Between the Magisterium and Exegetes

By Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger, President of the Pontifical Biblical Commission. A talk delivered to commemorate the 100th anniversary of the commision's establishment.

The Use of the Old Testament in the New

Thorough discussion by Barry Smith of Atlanta Baptist University. See also Smith's: - Interpretation of Scripture

The Word of God and its Fullness in Christ

A short statement that brings together the main threads of Catholic understanding of Scripture. By the Vatican's Congregation for the Clergy. Another useful reflection by the Congregation: - The Church and the Ministry of the Word of God.

Trinitarian Reality as Christian Truth

A good consideration of the Greek Patristic discussion by a Lutheran, Dr. William Weinrich. (pdf files, requires free Adobe Acrobat Reader.)

Two Views of Historical Criticism

A good consideration by Msgr. John F. McCarthy of the Roman Theological Forum. Includes: - Historical Criticism as a Critical Method - Historical Criticism as an Historical Method

Typology: A Summary of the Present Evangelical Discussion

A useful overview of the various wings of Protestant thought on this key issue of biblical interpretation.

Unity and Diversity in the Church

A 1991 document that examines biblical teaching on "the relationship between local Churches, or between particular groups, and the universality of the one people of God."

The Word of God

"A Catechism of the Bible"

Originally written by Father John O'Brien in the 1920s, this is a good Question-and-Answer style catechism on such basic questions as: What is the difference between Protestant and Catholic Bibles? What does in mean to say that the Bible is "inspired"?

A Biblical Theology of Redemption in a Covenant Framework

By Father William Most, originally published in the Catholic Biblical Quarterly. We also recommend by Father Most: - Our Father's Plan: God's Arrangements and Our Response - The Nature of the Redemption - Outline of Christology (on the covenant framework of Jesus' redemptive work)

Abolished or Fulfilled? The Mosaic Law in Relation to the New Covenant

By Eric Sammons. A good student paper that analyses the question in the writings of the Church fathers.

All-In-One Bible Resources Search Page

Excellent site by Mark Goodacre of the University of Birmingham.

An Attempt to Establish an Historically Accurate Definition of "Typology"

An interesting overview of the history of the term and its use in the Bible and the writings of the Fathers.

Authorship, Inerrancy, and Historicity of Scripture

Father William Most's ambitious attempt to tackle the most provocative and difficult concepts in Scripture. Includes a strong critique of directions in Scripture interpretation following the Second Vatican Council.

Avoiding Biblical Paralysis

A good introduction to Catholic teaching on Scripture and Revelation by Curtis Martin.

Basic Scripture

Father William Most's thorough, book-by-book overview of the Bible. Includes important chapters on the history of Catholic understanding of Scripture.

Bible Overview Series

Another good Protestant Bible study. - The Pattern of the Kingdom and the Perished Kingdom - The Promised Kingdom & Partial Kingdom - I - The Promised Kingdom & Partial Kingdom - II - The Present Kingdom

Bibles in Other Languages

Useful and well-organized directory of Bibles in over 140 different languages, in print, audio and on-line. Other useful translation search engines: - The Unbound Bible - Bible Search Engine - On-Line Bibles - Compare Multiple Bible Versions - Blue Letter Bible

Biblical Greek Lexicon

Enables you to find any Greek word used in the New Testament by Greek or English word or by number in Strong's Concordance to the Bible. Other sources: - Strong's Concordance with Hebrew and Greek Lexicon - Perseus Greek For students with more advanced training in Greek: - Search the Greek New Testament - Morphological Analyses of Inflected Greek Words.

Biblical Hebrew Lexicon

Enables you to find any Hebrew word used in the Old Testament by Hebrew or English word or by number in Strong's Concordance to the Bible. Another source: - Strong's Concordance with Hebrew and Greek Lexicon.

Biblical Interpretation in Crisis: On the Question of the Foundations and Approaches of Exegesis Tod

Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger's famous Erasmus Lecture of Jan. 27, 1988. His conclusions remain as important today as ever: "Finally, the exegete must realize that he, does not stand in some neutral area, above or outside history and the Church. Such a presumed immediacy regarding the purely historical can only lead to dead ends. The first presupposition of all exegesis is that it accepts the Bible as a book. In so doing, it has already chosen a place for itself which does not simply follow from the study of literature. It has identified this particular literature as the product of a coherent history, and this history as the proper space for coming to understanding. If it wishes to be theology, it must take a further step. It must recognize that the faith of the Church is that form of "sympathia" without which the Bible remains a closed book. It must come to acknowledge this faith as a hermeneutic, the space for understanding, which does not do dogmatic violence to the Bible, but precisely allows the solitary possibility for the Bible to be itself."

Biblical Texts Related to the Catholic Mass

A helpful introduction, by Father Felix Just, S.J., of Loyola Marymount University.

Can We Reproduce the Exegesis of the New Testament?

An interesting meditation by an evangelical student.

Catholic - Intermediate Medieval Exegesis and the Modern Christian

An insightful look at how the medieval culture and the Catholic imagination were seeped in the Bible. Quote: "In fact, not only the monastic Office, but also Medieval worship as a whole was steeped in the texts and imagery of Holy Writ. In the Latin West, most of the music of the Church was composed by setting the texts of the Bible, usually the Psalms, giving glory to God through the words of his own inspiration..."

Catholic Encyclopedia Articles on the Bible

Although some elements of these entries are dated, there is much to be learned from the 1913 edition. See, especially the article on Biblical Exegesis. Here's a good list: - The Bible - Scripture - Inspiration - Biblical Exegesis - Heremeneutics - Types in Scripture - Authenticity of the Bible - Textual Criticism - Old Testament - Canon of the Old Testament - New Testment - Canon of the New Testament - Septuagint Version - Hebrew Bible - Douay Bible - Authorized Version

Catholicism and the Bible

A key interview with Father Albert Vanhoye, former head of the Pontifical Biblical Commission on key issues in Catholic interpretation of Scripture. Originally published in the journal First Things.

Communion and Koinonia: Pauline Reflections on Tolerance and Boundaries

By one of the best New Testament scholars, N.T. Wright. We also recommend his brief reflection on the implications of Jesus' preaching: - A New World

Comparing Catholic, Orthodox and Protestant Bibles

A very helpful chart prepared by Prof. Felix Just, S.J., of Loyola Marymount University.

Covenant and Mission

Cardinal Avery Dulles, S.J., responds to a controversial statement adopted by a committee of U.S. bishops and Jewish leaders on the nature of God's covenant with the Jews and its relation to the New Covenant brought by Christ. Originally appeared in America magazine.

Covenant, Treaty and Prophecy

A brief look at the relationship between biblical prophecy and covenants and those of the Ancient Near East.

Crisis in Scripture Studies

A critique of the excesses of "historical-criticism" that along the way provides a neat overview of the history of biblical interpretation. By Father William Most. See also, by the Roman Theological Forum: - Catholic Bishops of the 1980s: Attitudes to Scripture and Theology

Current Doctrinal Relevance of the Catechism of the Catholic Church

An important reflection by Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger, head of the Vatican's Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith. See especially the long section on the Catechism's treatment of Scripture. This is must-reading.

Dei Verbum and Christian Morals

Considers the implications of Vatican II's constitution on Scripture for moral theology. By Father Benedict Ashley, O.P.

Douay-Rheims

The first translation of the entire Bible into English, made from St. Jerome's edition of the Vulgate, and published in 1609-1610. - Search the Douay-Rheims Bible

Early Church Fathers on Sexual Morality

A good representative selection, organized by topic. From Byzantines.net.

Elementary New Testament Greek

A good place to begin. For another on-line tutorial that will get you started reading the New Testament: - Little Greek 101

English to Latin Word Search

Allows you to search for an English word in a dictionary of classical Latin. For less complex word studies, try here (be sure to change search option to "English") or here.

Feminism and Marriage: a Reflection on Ephesians 5:21-33

A study of the various biblical and theological interpretations of this famous passage, by Mary Shivanandan, a theologian at the Pope John Paul II Institute for Studies on Marriage and the Family in Washington, D.C.

For the Sake of Our Salvation: The Truth and Humility of God’s Word

Letter & Spirit: A Journal of Catholic Biblical Theology 6 (2010), pp. 13–50

Grace in the Bible

By Father William Most.

Greek New Testament

Below are links to more specialized on-line versions of the New Testament in its original language, as well as Greek study aids. To start: Browse the Greek New Testament.

Greek New Testament for Beginners

A superb resource. Gives word-by-word translation of the entire Greek New Testament, including parsings, pronunciations, and Strong's Concordance number for each word.

Hearing God’s Truth

A good beginner’s guide to Studying the Scriptures. By Rev. Rodney Whitacre of Trinity School for Ministry.

Hebrew Old Testament

Also referred to as the Hebrew Bible or the Tanak, a Hebrew word formed from the three divisions of the Old Testament - the Torah (The first five books of the Bible, called "The Law" or the "Teaching" or the "Pentateuch of Moses"), the Nevi'im ("The Prophets," which for the Jews also includes Joshua, Judges, 1-2 Samuel and 1-2 Kings, books that the Church calls "historical") and the Ketuvim ("The Writings," which includes Psalms, Proverbs, Job, Song of Solomon, Lamentations and Ecclesiastes, as well as books considered "historical" by the Church: Ruth, Esther, Ezra, Nehemiah, 1-2 Chronicles, and Daniel.)

Hebrew-English Bible

According to the Masoretic Text and the Jewish Publication Society 1917 Edition. Of related interest: - Hebrew Bible (no English)

Hermeneutics and Biblical Authority

A good study of the inspiration and authority of Scripture from an evangelical perspective. By James Packer, a leading evangelical scholar. Another good piece from a Protestant perspective is: - Origins of Modern Attacks on Biblical Authority

Hermeneutics and Biblical Theology

Protestant scholar Steven Baugh says: "We must realize that there is one theme running throughout all of the books of the Bible, tying the subplots, characters, and sub-themes into one grand redemptive drama."

Historical-Critical Scripture Studies and the Catholic Faith

A good appraisal by St. Paul Center fellow, Michael Waldstein of the International Theological Institute.

How Does Music Express the Word of God, the Vision of God?

On the relationship between the Incarnation, the written Word of God, and Church singing. By Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith. Published in the Adoremus Journal.

Instruction on Scripture and Christology

Many people today, especially in the West, readily admit that they are agnostics or nonbelievers. Does this mean that they show no interest in Jesus Christ or his role in the world? It is clear from studies and writings that are being published that this is scarcely so, even if the way of treating this question has changed. Yet there are (also) Christians who are deeply disturbed either by the variety of ways of handling the problem or by solutions proposed for it. The Pontifical Biblical Commission is anxious to offer some aid in this matter to pastors and the faithful in the following ways: (1) by presenting a brief survey of such studies to point out their import and the risks they run; and (2) by setting forth summarily the testimony of Scripture itself about the expectation of salvation and of the Messiah, so that the gospel may be rightly seen against its antecedent background, and then by showing how the fulfillment of such expectation and promises in Jesus Christ is to be understood.

Interlinear Greek New Testament

For every verse, this site provides a very thorough presentation of four Greek manuscripts of the New Testament, along with the Vulgate, the Douay-Rheims, and several other English translations.

Interpreting Texts in the Context of the Whole Bible

A thoughtful piece by a Protestant scholar. A quote: "It is not coincidence that the Old and New Testaments are bound in one volume. The God who reveals himself in the Old Testament is the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ. The New Testament recounts the fulfilment of promises made centuries beforehand. So the two Testaments form one historical and theological work, in which each event and word can only be understood fully when interpreted in the context of the whole; and the whole can only be rightly interpreted in the light of its central event and Word, Jesus Christ."

Introduction to the Biblical Covenants

A 1999 edition of the Master's Seminary Theological Journal. (Editor's Note: While these will be helpful to advanced Catholic students, they do reflect a number of Protestant assumptions about Scripture and salvation history and should be used with caution. PDF files, requires free Adobe Acrobat Reader.) Includes: - Noahic and Priestly Covenants - The Abrahamic Covenant - The Mosaic Covenant - The Davidic Covenant - The New Covenant - Bibliography of Works on the Covenant.

Jean Levie and the Biblical Movement

A good critical look at the development and directions of Catholic biblical scholarship in the years before Vatican II. By Msgr. John McCarthy of the Roman Theological Forum. Also instructive is his series on the "incomplete" Catholic response to the "de-mythologizing" movement started by the liberal Protestant exegete, Rudolph Bultmann in the 1940s and 1950s: - Part 1: Leopold Malevez and Heinrich Fries - Part 2: Rene Marle and Joseph Cahill - Part 3: Xavier Leon-Dufour and John McKenzie - Part 4: Anton Vogtle and Ugo Lattanzi

Justification: The Joint Declaration

An important reflection by Cardinal Avery Dulles, S.J. on the Catholic-Lutheran dialogue on this critical theological issue. First published in the Josephinum Journal of Theology. Also on this subject by Cardinal Dulles: - The Two Languages of Salvation: The Lutheran-Catholic Joint Declaration (From the journal, First Things)

Latin Lexicon

Find definitions of Latin words and their derivatives. For less complex word studies, try here.

Latin Words in Context

Find instances of one or more words appearing in Latin texts. Useful in searching for Latin idioms and phrases. Have a Latin word that you're having a hard time finding in the dictionary? Morphological Analyses for Inflected Latin Words gives you dictionary entries from which it could be derived.

Learning God's Word: A Catholic Guide to Scripture Study

Most introductions to the Bible are quite large and imposing - thick volumes with many pages of text and fine print. I have tried to write something much more brief, perhaps surprisingly so; it is meant to be like a little "handmaid" for the reader who wants to have a succinct overview of the major themes in biblical study both past and present - whether as a goal in itself, or as a framework for further, more detailed study. I have drawn the material from documents of the Magisterium and from reputable Catholic scholarship both past and present, thereby hoping to provide the basic information and knowledge you need to appreciate the sacred texts within the living tradition in which they were written. May His Word always accompany you.

NAB Search

Not as convenient as it could be, but the best New American Bible search currently available.

Neo-Patristic Exegesis

An ambitious effort to sketch a new synthesis between historical and theological methods in the interpretation of Scripture. By Msgr. John McCarthy of the Roman Theological Forum. Includes: - The State of the Question - A Neo-Patristic Reply to the Historical-Critical Question

New American Bible (NAB)

The translation of Scripture used in the Church's lectionary. From the United States bishops.

New Vulgate (Latin)

Also referred to by its Latin name, Nova Vulgata, this is the modern revision, approved by Pope John Paul II in 1979, of St. Jerome's 4th-century "common translation" (versio vulgata in Latin). The Pope's apostolic letter, Scripturum Thesaurus, gives a concise history of the Vulgate and its central importance in the Church's liturgy. For Jerome's version: Vulgate or Vulgate.

Norms for the Translation of Biblical Texts for Use in the Liturgy

A 1995 statement by the Vatican's Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith.

On-Line Hebrew Tutorial

A good place to begin.

Paradise Restored: A Biblical Theology of Dominion

A good introduction to biblical eschatology and prophecy, by a Reformed scholar, David Chilton.

Parallel Latin-English Psalter

Combines the Latin text of the Vulgate's Book of Psalms with the English text of the Book of Psalms from the Douay translation.

Pope Paul VI and the Truth of Sacred Scripture

A good look at the approach of Pope Paul, whose teachings on Scripture are often neglected. An adaptation of a doctoral dissertation defended by Father Brian Harrison at the Pontifical Atheneum of the Holy Cross in Rome.

Recordings of the Hebrew Bible

Mp3 recordings of every book of the Hebrew Bible. Available for downloading or listening on line.

Revised Standard Version Catholic Edition

Our preferred modern translation, the text used as the basis for our Ignatius Study Bible.

RSV Catholic Edition

Another on-line edition of the Revised Standard Version Catholic Edition

Septuagint Quotations in the New Testament

A very helpful guide by R. Grant Jones, an Orthodox scholar. Provides all quotations in the order in which they appear in the New Testament. Click on the Old Testament source to compare the Greek of the New Testament with the original Septuagint Greek and with the Hebrew Masoretic text. For more in-depth study, see: - Instances where the New Testament quotes the Septuagint against the Hebrew - Instances where the New Testament follows the Hebrew meaning against the Septuagint - The Septuagint in Early Christian Writings

Sunday Mass Readings

A valuable interpretative aide for seeing how specific passages of Scripture are used in the Church's liturgy. Often the way Old Testament and New Testament texts are associated in the liturgy suggest creative interpretative options and possibilities.

The Allegorical Sense of Scripture

A good beginners' introduction to reading the "spiritual sense" of Scripture. From our friend Mark Shea's book, Making Senses Out of Scripture.

The Attitudes toward the State in the New Testament

A short but useful overview.

The Bible Gap

By Father Benedict Ashley, O.P. A quote: "Thus the abyss today opening between the Bible and theology, must be overcome by a type of exegesis that does not stop with historical and literary criticism but interprets the biblical text precisely as the Word of God redeeming our theological systems, not as re-written to conform to them. We must be instructed by God not instruct him."

The Bible Today

Perhaps a little dated now, but still a clear, concise and worthwhile introduction to the Bible by C.H. Dodd, one of the great New Testament scholars of the 20th century. Written in 1956.

The Canon of Scripture

A fine treatment of the concept and history of the biblical canon. By Father William Most, originally written for the New Catholic Encyclopedia.

The Covenantal Structure of the Bible

Rev. Ralph Allan Smith provides a good overview of the covenants of the Bible. Keep in in mind that this is a Protestant approach and hence doesn't reflect the Catholic understanding that the Church is the fulfilmment of the covenants of the Old Testament. With that caveat, the work is still very helpful for understanding the covenant makeup of the Bible. Also helpful is Rev. Smith's: - Trinity and Covenant - Adam, Noah and the Kingdom

The Death of Jesus as Sacrifice

By Cardinal Avery Dulles, S.J., published in 1996 in the Josephinum Journal of Theology. Quote: "From my own reading of the biblical evidence, influenced by the work of many exegetes, I think it must be said that the idea of the death of the Redeemer as sacrifice is massively present in Holy Scripture....The New Testament does not permit us to view the Cross as an unfortunate accident contravening the plan of God. According to Peter's Pentecost sermon, reported in Acts 2:23, Jesus was delivered up according to the definite plan and foreknowledge of God."

The Development of the New Testament Canon

A very good overview site. Provides details on various sources and authorities from the early Church; tables depicting the reception of various texts as divinely "inspired"; a discussion of various heresies in the early Church and a list of texts found not to be inspired by early Church authorities.

The Divine Meaning of Human Scripture

A good study from Westminster Theological Journal.

The Early Church and Abortion

An impressive array of quotations from the Fathers of the Church and early Church Councils and manuals.

The Go'el in Ancient Israel: Theological Reflections on an Israelite Tradition

A good study of the important biblical tradition of the close relative, a "kinsman-redeemer," who takes upon himself the duties of "redemption" or "recovery" on behalf of a needy family member. (.pdf files, requires free Adobe Acrobat Reader.)

The Importance of the Covenants

An excellent overview of God's covenants in Scripture by a Protestant scholar, R.N. Brinsmead. We also recommend highly Brinsmead's Christ The Meaning of All Scripture, Life and History which explores: - The Historical Pattern of the Old Testament - Christ, Meaning of Old Testament History - Prophets and Law

The Influence of German Biblical Criticism on Muslim Apologetics in the 19th Century

A very interesting study by Dr. Christine Schirrmacher. A quote: "The aim of this paper is to trace the development of a new Muslim view of Christianity in the 19th century, which still has an enormous impact on today's Muslim apologetical works. The composition of anti-Christian books has changed in character due to the achievement of a different view of Christian dogmas and Christianity itself in the 19th century."

The Liturgy and the Word of God

The proceedings of a Congress held in Strasbourg in 1958 that included some of the greats of the liturgical reform movement. Includes essays by Bouyer, Jounel, Danielou, von Balthasar and more. In addition, be sure to read the congress' conclusions. A quote: "It is not enough to say that the Bible occupies a privileged place in the liturgical celebration. It plays such a fundamental role that without the Bible there would be no liturgy. We cannot enter profoundly into the liturgical celebration if we ignore sacred history. No liturgical progress is possible without the Biblical education of clergy and faithful alike."

The Liturgy and the Word of God

The proceedings of a Congress held in Strasbourg in 1958 that included some of the greats of the liturgical reform movement. Includes essays by Bouyer, Jounel, Danielou, von Balthasar and more. In addition, be sure to read the congress' conclusions. A quote: "It is not enough to say that the Bible occupies a privileged place in the liturgical celebration. It plays such a fundamental role that without the Bible there would be no liturgy. We cannot enter profoundly into the liturgical celebration if we ignore sacred history. No liturgical progress is possible without the Biblical education of clergy and faithful alike."

The Liturgy Speaks God's Word, Not Ours

By Father Jeremy Driscoll, O.S.B. Must reading. Published in the Adoremus Journal. - Part 2

The Meaning of Covenant

An interesting article on human and divine covenant-making in the Scriptures.

The Meaning of Grace

A classic by Charles Journet, published in 1957.

The Nature and Aims of Biblical Theology

A good essay by the important Reformed thinker, Geerhardus Vos, the first chair of biblical theology at Princeton in 1893. For an assessment of his importance, again from a Reformed viewpoint: - What is Biblical Theology? Reflections on the Inaugural Address of Geerhardus Vos Of related interest: - Biblical Theology in the Study and in the Pulpit - Suggestions for Reading The History of Biblical Theology: Encyclopedias and Dictionaries

The Net Bible

A new on-line English translation, featuring thousands of text-critical and philological annocations. For reading only, with no search programs. The notes are what is valuable about this site.

The New Catechism and Scripture

Good review of the Catechism's treatment of the Bible, by Father Thomas McGovern. See too his examination of Vatican II's (and the Catechism's) directive that Scripture should be "the soul of theology": - Magisterium, Scripture and Catholic Exegetes

The Old Testament Attitude to Homosexuality

Interesting look at why the Scripture condemns homosexual acts. The answer: "It seems most likely that Israel's repudiation of homosexual intercourse arises out of its doctrine of creation....To allow the legitimacy of homosexual acts would frustrate the divine purpose and deny the perfection of God's provision of two sexes to support and complement one another." By Gordon Wenham of the College of St. Paul and St. Mary. Originally published in Expository Times. Other good studies: - The Condemnation of Homosexuality in 1 Corinthians 6:9 - The Condemnation of Homosexuality in Romas 1:26-27

The Paschal Feast in the Bible

By P. Grelot and J. Pierron. From the introduction: "The purpose of this book is to open the eyes of Christians to the whole paschal scene, to the full mystery of our redemption which reaches back to the beginnings of the history of Israel. . . . The history of the Old Testament is the history of the people of God."

The Relationship Between the Magisterium and Exegetes

By Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger, President of the Pontifical Biblical Commission. A talk delivered to commemorate the 100th anniversary of the commision's establishment.

The Sacraments and the History of Salvation

An important article on the relationship between Scripture, the Church and the Sacraments. By Cardinal Jean Danielou, S.J. Quote: "The sacraments are simply the continuation in the era of the Church of God's acts in the Old Testament and the New. This is the proper significance of the relationship between the Bible and the liturgy. The Bible is a sacred history; the liturgy is a sacred history."

The Septuagint

"Septuagint" means "seventy" and is also referred to as the "LXX Edition" because of an ancient Jewish tradition that claimed it was a translation produced by 70 scholars in 70 days. This is the collection of Jewish Scriptures in Greek translation that was current during Jesus' time and is the source for many of the New Testament's quotations of the Old. Includes all 39 books of the Old Testament and seven books not in the Hebrew Old Testament, known as "Old Testament Apocrypha." The translation was probably made in Alexandria, Egypt, circa 250 b.c. You can also find the Septuagint here and here.

The Truth and Salvific Purpose of Sacred Scripture According to Dei Verbum, no. 11

A very helful treatment from the Roman Theological Forum.

The Use of the Old Testament in the New

Thorough discussion by Barry Smith of Atlanta Baptist University. See also Smith's: - Interpretation of Scripture

Through New Eyes: Developing a Biblical Worldview

A good introduction by the Reformed theologian, James Jordan.

Two Views of Historical Criticism

A good consideration by Msgr. John F. McCarthy of the Roman Theological Forum. Includes: - Historical Criticism as a Critical Method - Historical Criticism as an Historical Method

Typology: A Summary of the Present Evangelical Discussion

A useful overview of the various wings of Protestant thought on this key issue of biblical interpretation.

Weekly Synagogue Readings

Provides the Hebrew and English for the regular public Torah readings and festiveals and other special days. Also includes a good introduction to the use of the Scriptures in Jewish worship. Of related interest: - Current Jewish Calendar - Jewish Calendar Tools

Westcott-Hort Text Edition

An 1881 edition that was the first significant new manuscript of the ancient texts in three hundred years.

Westcott-Hort Text Edition

An 1881 edition that was the first significant new manuscript of the ancient texts in three hundred years.

What God Hath Not Joined: Why Marriage Was Meant for Male and Female

A good defense of Scriptural and traditional teaching by Dr. Edith M. Humphrey, an Anglican laywoman and New Testament scholar at Pittsburgh Theological Seminary. See also her related articles: - What Constitutes a Faithful Reading of Scripture? - What Is Disordered Sexuality? - How Is Sexuality Understood in Scripture, Tradition, and Contemporary Theology? - What Would It Mean for the Church to Bless Same-Sex Unions? - The New Testament Speaks on Same-Sex Eroticism - Holy Is as Holy Does

Liturgy & Prayer

Catholic Rites and Teachings

A series of reflections on the Catholic Mass and the New Roman Missal

By Archbishop Charles Chaput, O.F.M. Cap. of Denver. - How we pray shapes what we believe - Nature of Priesthood Marks Catholic Faith - Mass a Conversation of Love With God - Deacons: Ministers of the Word, Altar and Charity - Mass Shared Dialogue Between Priest and Faithful - Introductory Rites - Liturgy of the Word - Homilies: Nourishment From the Table of the Word - Presenting Gifts Allows Each to Make Offering of Self - The Eucharistic Prayer: Heart of the Mass - The 'Our Father': Appropriate Gestures for Prayer - The Rite of Peace - Communion Rite - Ordinary, Extraordinary Ministers - Receiving Communion - Communion - Concluding Rite - Liturgy Series Concludes See also these statements on the Eucharist by members of the U.S. hierarchy: - All Praise and All Thanksgiving by Archbishop Theodore E. McCarrick - The Eucharist: To be Loved, To be Lived by Bishop Thomas J. Tobin - The Eucharist: Sacrifice of Love by Bishop John J. Myers

Addresses to the Tribunal of the Roman Rota

A collection of Pope John Paul II's annual addresses to the Church's top "marriage court." Provides excellent and developing insight into the Church's belief in the sanctity of marriage and the issue of "annulments."

Apostolic Constitution on Penance (Paenitemini)

Issued in 1966 by Pope Paul VI.

Apostolic Constitution on the Sacrament of the Anointing of the Sick

Issued in 1972 by Pope Paul VI.

Christian Funerals

An excerpt from The Catechism of the Catholic Church: - The Christian's Last Passover - The Celebration of Funerals

Christian Marriage

An excellent defense of the Church's teachings, issued by the Bishops of Ireland in 1969.

Circular Letter Concerning the Integrity of the Sacrament of Penance

Issued in 2000 by the Vatican's Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of Sacraments.

Collaboration of the Non-Ordained Faithful in the Sacred Ministry of Priest

An important 1997 document clarifying the respective roles of the priest and lay people during the celebration of the Mass. Issued jointly by the Vatican's Congregation for the Clergy; Pontifical Council for the Laity; Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith; Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments; Congregation for Bishops; Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples; Congregation for Institutes of Consecretated Life and Societies of Apostolic Life; and Pontifical Council for the Interpretation of Legislative Texts.

Concerning the Pastoral Office of Bishops in the Church (Christus Dominus)

The decree of the Second Vatican Council, issued in 1965. See also: - Ordination Rite: Order of Bishop

Decree on First Communion

Issued in 1910 by the Vatican's Sacred Congregation of the Discipline of the Sacraments.

Decree on Penance

From the Fourteenth Session of the Council of Trent, 1545-1563. See also: - Canons on Penance

Directory on Popular Piety and the Liturgy. Principles and Guidelines

Issued in 2002 by the Vatican's Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments.

Directory on the Ministry and Life of Priests

An instruction by the Vatican's Congregation for the Clergy (1994).

Doctrine on the Sacrament of Matrimony

From the Twenty-Fourth Session of the Council of Trent, 1545-1563. See also: - Canons on the Sacrament of Matrimony - Decree on the Reformation of Marriage

Documents On the Tridentine Indult

In 1984, Pope John Paul II granted permission (an "indult") for the celebration of Mass according to the 1962 edition of the Roman Missal - the so-called Tridentine Mass. The following are documents relating to that Tridentine Mass: - On the Use of the "Tridentine" Liturgy (Quattuor Abhinc Annos) by the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments, 1984. - The Church of God (Ecclesia Dei) by Pope John Paul II, 1988. - Guidelines for the Celebration of the "Tridentine" Mass by the Pontifical Commission Ecclesia Dei, 1991. - Clarification on the Celebration of the "Tridentine" Mass by the Pontifical Commission Ecclesia Dei,1995. - Clarification on the Celebration of the "Tridentine" Mass by the Pontifical Commission Ecclesia Dei, 1997.

Educational Guidance in Human Love

Written in 1983 by the Vatican's Congregation for Catholic Education as an outline for authentic Catholic sex education, this document serves as a good primer of the Church's teachings on nuptial love.

Eucharist, A Sacrament to be Adored

Pope John Paul II's letter marking the 750th anniversary of the first celebration of the feast of Corpus Christi. See also the Pope's: - Pope John Paul II Recalls and Encourages National Eucharistic Devotion (excerpt)

General Introduction to the Lectionary

Issued by the Vatican's Congregation for the Sacraments and Divine Worship in 1981, contains a good discussion of the principles of the Liturgy and the role of the Bible in the celebration of the Mass. See also: - Introduction to the Book of the Gospels

Instruction on Prayers for Healing

A helpful 2000 clarification from the Vatican's Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith.

Instruction on Worship of the Eucharistic Mystery (Eucharisticum Mysterium)

An important teaching on the Adoration of the Blessed Sacrament. Issued in 1967 by the Sacred Congregation of Rites. See also: - Instruction on Certain Norms Concerning the Worship of the Eucharistic Mystery (Inaestimabile donum) by the Sacred Congregation for the Sacraments Divine Worship, 1980 - Holy Communion and Worship of the Eucharist Outside Mass (Eucharistiae Sacramentum) by the Sacred Congregation for the Sacraments Divine Worship, 1973 - Perpetual Exposition of the Blessed Sacrament by the U.S. Catholic Bishops, 1997.

Instruction Redemptionis Sacramentum

(On certain matters to be observed or to be avoided regarding the Most Holy Eucharist). Issued by the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacrament, March 25, 2004

Jesus Christ the Bearer of the Water of Life. A Christian Reflection on the "New Age"

A helpful 2003 analysis by the Pontifical Council for Culture, the Pontifical Council for Interreligious Dialogue, the Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity, and the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples.

Living Together

An excellent discussion of the Church's teaching on marriage in a "Question and Answer" format. By the Pennsylvania Catholic Bishops.

Mystery of Holy Anointing (Byzantine Catholic)

In many Byzantine parishes, it's the custom to administer this Sacrament on the Wednesday of Holy Week. For a good history of the practice and meaning, see: - Mirovanije: The Anointing With Holy Oil

Norms for the Translation of Biblical Texts for Use in the Liturgy

by the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith

On Certain Aspects of the Celebration of Sacrament of Penance (Misericordia Dei)

Pope John Paul II's 2002 Apostolic Letter. For an insightful introduction to Misericordia Dei, see: - Intervention by the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith

On Christian Marriage (Casti Connubii)

Pope Pius XI's 1930 Encyclical Letter.

On Marriage Impediments And Dispensations (Magnae Nobis)

Pope Benedict XIV's 1748 Encyclical Letter. See also Pope Benedict's: - On the Validity of Marriages (Nimiam Licentiam)

On Priestly Training (Optatam Totius)

The decree of the Second Vatican Council, issued in 1965.

On Reserving Priestly Ordination to Men Alone

Pope John Paul II's 1984 Apostolic Letter, Ordinatio Sacerdotalis. For earlier Vatican pronouncements on the subject: - Declaration on the Admission of Women to the Ministerial Priesthood (Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, 1976) For a fine commentary on the subject, written in 1978, by Father Louis Ligier, S.J., a consultor of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith: - The Question of Admitting Women to the Ministerial Priesthood

On the Bishop, Servant of the Gospel of Jesus Christ for the Hope of the World (Pastores Gregis)

Pope John Paul II's 2003 Post-Synodal Apostolic Exhortation.

On the Celibacy of the Priest (Sacerdotalis Caelibatus)

Pope Paul VI's Encyclical Letter of 1967.

On the Eucharistic Prayers

A letter 1973 letter to the world's bishops by the Vatican's Sacred Congregation for Divine Worship.

On the Holy Eucharist (Mirae Caritatis)

Pope Leo XIII's encyclical letter of 1902.

On the Ministry and Life of Priests (Presbyterorum Ordinis)

The decree of the Second Vatican Council, issued in 1965. See also: - Ordination Rite: Order of Priest

On the Regulation of Human Birth (Humanae Vitae)

Pope Paul VI's landmark 1968 Encyclical Letter. See especially his discussion of "God's Loving Design for Marriage."

On the Sacrament of Extreme Unction

From the Fourteenth Session of the Council of Trent, 1545-1563.

On the Sacrament of Order

From the Twenty-third Session of the Council of Trent, 1545-1563.

Papal Documents on Devotion to the Sacred Heart of Jesus

By Pope Leo XIII: - Annum Sacrum: On Consecration To The Sacred Heart (1899) By Pope Pius XI: - Miserentissimus Redemptor: On Reparation To The Sacred Heart (1928) - Caritate Christi Compulsi: On The Sacred Heart (1932) By Pope Pius XII: - Hauerietis Aquas: On the Sacred Heart (1956) By Pope John Paul II: - His Heart Is the Heart of the Church (1999) - Heart of Jesus, Have Mercy! (1999) - Heart of Jesus, Our Peace and Reconciliation (1999)

Pastoral Letter on Penance

A fine statement by Archbishop Theodore E. McCarrick.

Pastoral Norms Concerning the Administration of General Sacramental Absolution

Issued by the Vatican's Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith in 1972.

Prayer in the Christian Life

An excerpt from The Catechism of the Catholic Church: The Revelation of Prayer - The Universal Call to Prayer</b>">The Revelation of Prayer - The Universal Call to Prayer In the Old Testament</b>">In the Old Testament - In Brief In the Fullness of Time</b>">In the Fullness of Time - In Brief In the Age of the Church</b> ">In the Age of the Church - Blessing and Adoration - Prayer of Petition - Prayer of Intercession - Prayer of Thanksgiving - Prayer of Praise - In Brief The Tradition of Prayer</b>">The Tradition of Prayer At the Wellsprings of Prayer - In Brief The Way of Prayer - In Brief Guides for Prayer - In Brief The Life of Prayer Expressions of Prayer - Vocal prayer - Meditation - Contemplative Prayer - In Brief The Battle of Prayer - Objections to Prayer - Humble Vigilance of Heart - Filial Trust - Perservering in Love The Prayer of the Hour of Jesus - In Brief The Lord's Prayer The "Summary of the Whole Gospel" - At the Center of the Scriptures - The Lord's Prayer - The Prayer of the Church - In Brief "Our Father Who Art in Heaven" - We Dare To Say" - Abba - "Father!" - "Our" Father - Who Art in Heaven" - In Brief The Seven Petitions - "Hallowed be Thy Name" - "Thy Kingdom Come" - "Thy Will Be Done on Earth as It is in Heaven" - "Give Us This Day Our Daily Bread" - "And Forgive Us Our Trespasses, as We Forgive Those Who Trespass Against Us" - "And Lead Us Not into Temptation" The Final Doxology - In Brief

Preparation for the Sacrament of Marriage

A 1996 document of the Pontifical Council for the Family. See also, the Council for the Family's sound explanation of the Church's teaching on married love in: - The Truth and Meaning of Human Sexuality - Vademecum for Confessors Concerning Some Aspects of the Morality of Conjugal Life

Reconciliation and Penance in the Mission of the Church (Reconciliatio et Paenitentia)

Pope John Paul II's 1984 Post-Synodal Apostolic Exhortation. See also, by Pope John Paul II: - Purpose and Benefits of Sacramental Penance

Reflections on Priestly Celibacy

(from the Vatican's Congregation for the Clergy): - The Biblical Foundation of Priestly Celibacy - Purity and Priesthood in the Hebrew Scriptures and Rabbinic Tradition - The Spirituality of Priestly Celibacy - Priestly Celibacy in Patristics and Church History - The Theological Basis for Priestly Celibacy - Sign of the Charity of Christ by Blessed Teresa of Calcutta

Reflections on the Identity and Mission of the Priest

(from the Vatican's Congregation for the Clergy): - The Priesthood of the Old Covenant - Priesthood in the New Testament - The Image of the Priest in Vatican II's Presbyterorum Ordinis - Priesthood: A Greater Love - Life and Ministry of Priests - Priests and Confession - The Priest and the Bishop - The Blessed Virgin Mary in the Life and Ministry of the Priest - The Necessity of Continuing Formation for the Priest - To All Priests in the World (On the 30th anniversary of Vatican II's, Presbyterorum Ordinis)

Rite of Eucharistic Devotion

The prayers and blessings in Latin and English.

Rite of Marriage During Mass

From the 1970 Roman Missal. See also: - Rite of Marriage During Mass (From the 1962 Roman Missal) For a short history of the revised rite of marriage, published in 1969 by the Sacred Congregation of Rites, see: - The Rite of Marriage

Rite of Penance, Introduction

Issued in 1974, contains a good chapter on "Mystery of Reconciliation in the History of the Church."

Ritual of Marriage

(Byzantine Catholic) How the rite is celebrated by Eastern Catholics.

River of Mercy

A powerful pastoral letter on Penance and Reconciliation by Archbishop Charles Chaput, O.F.M. Cap. of Denver.

Sacramentals

An excerpt from The Catechism of the Catholic Church: - In Brief

The Holy Mystery of Penance and Reconciliation

(Byzantine Catholic) How the Sacrament is celebrated by Eastern Rite Catholics. Includes an Examination of Conscience

The Liturgy of the Hours in Our Lives of Prayer

In this 1998 pastoral letter, Archbishop Elden Curtiss of Omaha, Neb. urges priests to renew their devotion to praying the Divine Office.

The Mystery of Faith (Mysterium Fidei)

Pope Paul VI's 1965 encyclical letter on the Eucharist.

The Office of Christian Burial with Divine Liturgy (Byzantine Catholic)

How funeral Masses are celebrated in the Byzantine Rite of the Catholic Church.

The Priest and the Third Christian Millenium

An instruction by the Vatican's Congregation for the Clergy (1999).

The Real Presence of Jesus Christ in the Sacrament of the Eucharist: Basic Questions and Answers

A helpful, short document drawn up in 2001 by the U.S. Catholic Bishops.

The Reception of the Holy Communion by the Divorced and Remarried Members of the Faithful

Issued in 1994 by the Vatican's Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith.

The Revised Book of the Liturgy of the Hours (Laudis Canticum)

Pope Paul VI's Apostolic Constitution of 1970. See also: - The General Instruction on the Liturgy of the Hours

The Sacramental Economy

Excerpts from The Catechism of the Catholic Church: - The Father - Source and Goal of the Liturgy - Christ's Work in the Liturgy - The Holy Spirit and the Church in the Liturgy - In Brief

The Sacraments at the Service of Communion

An excerpt from The Catechism of the Catholic Church - The Sacrament of Matrimony - Marriage in God's Plan - The Celebration of Marriage - Matrimonial Consent - The Effects of the Sacrament of Matrimony - The Goods and Requirements of Conjugal Love - The Domestic Church - In Brief

The Sacraments on Healing

An excerpt from The Catechsim of the Catholic Church: - The Anointing of the Sick - Its Foundations in the Economy of Salvation - Who Receives and Who Administers This Sacrament? - How is This Sacrament Celebrated? - The Effects of the Celebration of This Sacrament - Viaticum, the Last Sacrament of the Christian - In Brief

The Shrine - Memory, Presence and Prophecy of the Living God

A 1999 reflection by the Pontifical Council for the Pastoral Care of Migrants and Itinerant Peoples. Contains an excellent explanation of the Church's belief in the spiritual importance of shrines and holy places.

Prayer and Spirituality

'Short' Breviaries in 20th Century America

An interesting general introduction to a genre of prayer texts which has several names: "short" breviaries, little offices,breviaria parva and lay breviaries, among others.

A Few Minutes on Books of Hours

An excellent introductory essay by Patrick Haynes. For more studies and introductions, see: - Books of Hours: An Introductory Essay - Introduction to Scholarly Study of the Book of Hours and Index to a Selection of Texts and Variants - Sacred Image and Illusion in Late Flemish Manuscripts

A Franciscan Prayerbook

An excellent gathering of prayers on subjects ranging from "the needs of the Church" to "times of trial."

A Hypertext Book of Hours

An online version of a 1559 prayer book. The medieval "Book of Hours" evolved out of the monastic cycle of prayer which divided the day into eight segments, or "hours." These portable books designed for individual laypeople are smaller and less complicated than those used by the monks and designed for use by individuals. Usually, a Book of Hours include a liturgical calendar, along with the seven "Penitential Psalms" and additional prayers devoted to particular saints or personal issues. Most Books of Hours were devoted to the Virgin Mary.

A Pastoral Letter on Reverence for the Eucharist

A good treatment by the late Bishop John R. Keating of Arlington, Virginia.

A Short Catechism on Prayer

A helpful, brief outline prepared for use in adult Catholic education by Sacred Heart Church in the Seattle, Washingon Archdiocese.

A Worldwide Tour of Churches, Cathedrals and Monasteries

An inspiring set of links to the finest examples of Catholic architecture in the world. See also: - Churches of Rome - Saints in 16th-Century Mexican Churches

Accepting the Embrace of God: The Ancient Art of Lectio Divina

A good practical introduction. By Father Luke Dysinger, O.S.B.

Alphonsus de Liguori (1696-1787)

- Uniformity to God's Will - The Necessity and Power of Prayer - Spiritual Reading

Ambrosian Breviary

The Divine Office as it was prayed in the Archdiocese of Milan until the Second Vatican Council. See the order of prayers for: - Prime - Terce, Sext, None - Matins and Lauds - Compline - Vespers Chants For the post-Vatican II Ambrosian Office, see: - Diurna Laus and Psalter Schema

An Incentive to Prayer

Cardinal Francis Spellman's 1950 reflection on the Breviary, the official prayer book of the Church, remains a fresh introduction to Catholic prayer.

An Outline of the Liturgy of the Hours

A handy one-page overview.

Anonymous (ca. 1260-1288) - The Nine Ways of Prayer of St. Dominic

Anonymous English Author (14th-century) - The Cloud of Unknowing

Art in the Vatican

Links to the treasures of St. Peter's Basilica, the Pontifical Palaces and more. See also: - Sistine Chapel - Art by Raphael in the Vatican - The Vatican Museums

Artwork of Biblical and Liturgical Themes

A good sampling of artwork ranging from classic masters to contemporary. Alphabetical by theme: - Aaron to Dreams - Easter to Ishmael - Jacob to Mustard Seed - Nahum to Ruth - Salome to Zechariah

Ascetical Teaching of St. John of the Cross

A good introduction by Father Jordan Aumann, O.P.

Awakening to Prayer

A good introduction, by a Japenese Carmelite, Father Ichiro Okumura, O.C.D.

Beads and Prayers: The Rosary in History and Devotion

An abridged version of John D. Miller's good book of the same name. See also his: - Chart of the Evolution of the Marian Rosary

Benedictine Spirituality

A good introduction from "Some Schools of Catholic Spirituality" (1959).

Bernard of Clairvaux (1091-1153) - on Loving God

Bible Passages on Prayer

Quotes are from the Douay-Rheims translation. See also: - Scripture on Prayer - The Canticles of the Old and New Testaments

Blessed Columba Marmion (1858-1923)

- The Mysteries of the Rosary - Meditations on the Church Year

Blessed John Henry Newman (1801-1890)

- Meditations on Christian Doctrine - God is All in All - A Short Road to Perfection - Meditations and Devotions

Books of Hours in the Koninklijke Bibliotheek, The Hague

A general introduction to Books of Hours, with links to hundreds of high-quality images from manuscripts in the Koninklijke Bibliotheek. For other collections of images and texts with introductions: - Book of Hours Exhibition, University of Pennsylvania - Books of Hours in the J. Paul Getty Museum - Books of Hours in the Wellesley College Library - Franciscan Books of Hours from 15th-Century Italy - Leaves of Gold: 19 Books of Hours - Depicting Devotion: Illuminated Books of Hours from the Middle Ages - Book of Hours for Daughter of Francis I - Books of Hours in the University of Kentucky Special Collection - Book of Hours (Rouen, France, ca. 1600) - Book of Hours (Angers, France, ca. 1470) - Book of Hours (Holland, ca. 1425) - Book of Hours (Utrecht, Netherlands, ca. 1430) - Hours of the Holy Spirit and Prayers (Flanders, ca. 1600)

Carmelite Spirituality

A good introduction from "Some Schools of Catholic Spirituality" (1959).

Carol Gerten's Fine Art (CGFA)

An excellent site with lots of good Catholic art. Search by: - Artist Name - Nationality and Time Frame - Featured Artists

Catherine of Genoa (1447-1510) - Scriptural Dialogue in Three Parts

In the first part Saint Catherine relates in what manner she was captivated by worldly allurements, and how, from this state, she was entirely converted to God, and devoted herself to austere works of penance. In the second, she describes the sublime perfection of the spiritual life in which she is engaged. In the third, she discourses of the divine love and of its wonderful effects, and how she has experienced them all in herself.

Catherine of Siena (c. 1347-1380)

- The Dialogue of the Seraphic Virgin Catherine of Siena

Catholic Prayers

A good place to start. Contains traditional prayers an others, including little known gems like John Donne's Annunciation. See also: - On-Line Catholic Prayer Book - Basic Catholic Prayers

Christian Spirituality in the Catholic Tradition

A great introduction, by Father Jordan Aumann, O.P. See also, Father Aumann's classic study: - Spiritual Theology These articles by Father Aumann are also recommended: - Asceticism and the Christian Life - The Christian Laity

Clement of Alexandria (d. 215) - Stromateis

Dante Aligheri (1265-1321)

- Inferno - Purgatorio - Paradiso

Desert Fathers (4th century)

- Excerpts from The Paradise of the Desert Fathers - From the Sayings of the Desert Fathers - The Life of Our Holy Mother Mary of Egypt

Devotion To the Sacred Heart

A good historical overview, by P. Milward. Originally published in the American Ecclesiastical Review. - Part 2

Devotion to the Sacred Heart Explained

An excellent set of pages and links hosted by Sacred Heart Church in the Seattle, Washington Archdiocese. Includes prayers, history , Bible study and official Church documents.

Devotion to the Sacred Heart of Jesus

From The Catholic Encyclopedia.

Dionysius Areopagita: A Christian Mysticism?

An excellent study of an important but often overlooked figure in the Catholic spiritual tradition. By Father Alexander Golitzin. See also his: - "Suddenly", Christ: The Place of Negative Theology in the Mystagogy of Dionysius Areopagites

Directory of Churches and Chapels Holding Eucharist Adoration

A handy site.

Divine Office

A thorough overview from The Catholic Encyclopedia. See also these articles: - Breviary and Reform of the Roman Breviary - Canonical Hours - Matins - Lauds - Prime - Terce - Sext - None - Compline - Vespers and Music of Vespers - Nocturns

Dominican Spirituality

A good study by Father Benedict Ashley, O.P. See also Father Ashley's studies: - Blessed Osanna d'Andreasi and Other Renaissance Italian Dominican Women Mystics - Dominic Cavalca and the Spirituality of the Word - The Gifts of the Holy Spirit: A Study Outline

Dominican Spirituality

A good introduction from "Some Schools of Catholic Spirituality" (1959).

Dominican Spirituality: Principles and Practice

A good overview by Father William A Hinnebush, O.P. See especially the chapter, "Dominican Life is Liturgical."

Dorothy Day (1897-1980) - Writings

Egeria and Holy Week in Fourth-Century Jerusalem

Presents the original Latin and English translation of the remarkable diary kept by Egeria on her pilgrimage to celebrate Holy Week in Jerusalem. Egeria’s diary represents one of our most vivid snapshots of early Catholic worship.

Eucharist, A Sacrament to be Adored

Pope John Paul II's letter marking the 750th anniversary of the first celebration of the feast of Corpus Christi. See also the Pope's: - Pope John Paul II Recalls and Encourages National Eucharistic Devotion (excerpt)

Evening Prayer, Night Prayer and Psalmody

An excerpt from St. John Cassian's Institutes. See also, this excerpt: - Daytime Prayer and Psalmody in 4th-Century Egyptian Monasticism

Fasting, Prayer, Charity for the Gift of Peace

A fine meditation by Father Raniero Cantalamessa, O.F.M. Cap., official Preacher of the Papal Household under Pope John Paul II.

Form and Meaning of the Rosary Devotion

A fine consideration by Father Romano Guardini.

Francis Thompson (1859-1907) - The Hound of Heaven

Franciscan Spirituality

A good introduction from "Some Schools of Catholic Spirituality" (1959).

Gerard Manley Hopkins (1844-1889) - Poems

Girolamo Savonarola O.P (1452-1498) - A Sermon on the Lord's Prayer

Gospel Meditations for Lectio Divina

- The Parables of Jesus - Miracles of Jesus - Parallel Passages in Matthew, Mark and Luke (NIV Translation - Catholics should compare with RSV and NAB) - Lectio Divina with the Sunday Mass Readings

Guigo II (d. 1193) - The Ladder of Four Rungs

Henry Suso (c. 1295-1366) - A Little Book of Eternal Wisdom

Hermas (first or second century) - The Shepherd

History of the Liturgy of the Hours

A good introduction from a text book on Medieval Christian Liturgy. See also: - Origins of the Book of Hours

History of the Rosary

Informative overview by Father William Saunders.

Holy Land Photos

Fully searchable collection of nearly 150 sites with 1500 photos of the Holy Land. To browse: - Site List Other sources for photos related to biblical scenes: - Bible Places - Virtual Travel Through the Holy Places - Christian Sanctuaries of the Holy Land - Biblical Excursions in the Holy Land - The Holy Land of the First Crusaders

How Do You Pray the Rosary?

From the University of Dayton's Marian Library. A fine introduction with many images and quotations from Pope John Paul II. See also: - What is the Origin of the Rosary? - Is There a Biblical Basis for the Rosary?

How to Pray

By Blessed Columba Marmion, the great Benedictine abbot of the 20th century. An excerpt from his great work, Christ the Life of the Soul (1925).

Ignatian Spirituality

A good introduction from "Some Schools of Catholic Spirituality" (1959).

Instruction on Worship of the Eucharistic Mystery (Eucharisticum Mysterium)

An important teaching on the Adoration of the Blessed Sacrament. Issued in 1967 by the Sacred Congregation of Rites. See also: - Instruction on Certain Norms Concerning the Worship of the Eucharistic Mystery (Inaestimabile donum) by the Sacred Congregation for the Sacraments Divine Worship, 1980 - Holy Communion and Worship of the Eucharist Outside Mass (Eucharistiae Sacramentum) by the Sacred Congregation for the Sacraments Divine Worship, 1973

Introduction to the Roman Breviary

Father William Lallou's good introduction to the 1950 English translation of the Breviary.

Introduction to the Theology of the Divine Office

A good treatment by Melkite Catholic Archbishop Joseph Tawil, Eparch Emeritus of Newton, Mass.

Jan van Ruusbroec (1293-1381)

- The Adornment of the Spiritual Marriage - The Sparkling Stone - The Book of Supreme Truth

Johannes Tauler (1300-1365) - The Inner Way

John Cassian (c.360-c.432)

- Conferences - Institutes (on the monks life)

Jordan of Saxony (1231-1234) - The Libellus of Jordan of Saxony (An early history of the Dominicans)

Julian of Norwich (1343-1443) - Revelations of Divine Love

Letter on Lectio Divina

Written in 1993 by Father Bernardo Olivera, O.C.S.O, Abbot General of the Cistercian Order of the Strict Observance, or Trappists.

Little Office of the Blessed Virgin Mary (8th Century)

A cycle of daily prayers devoted to Our Lady.

Liturgy of the Hours

An excellent introductory site. From the Liturgy Office of the Archdiocese of New York. Includes: - What is Liturgy of the Hours? - Daily Structure of the Liturgy of the Hours - Structure of Each of the Hours - Editions of the Liturgy of the Hours - Organization and Contents of Editions of the Liturgy of the Hours - The Liturgical Calendar and the Liturgy of the Hours - Roles in the Celebrations of the Liturgy of the Hours

Margery Kempe (c. 1430)

Treatise of Contemplation- The Book of Margery Kempe - Treatise of Contemplation (from The Book of Margery Kempe)

Mass Times

A free ministry to traveling Catholics. Offers Mass times in the United States by city, zip code or area code.

Medieval Wall Painting in the English Parish

A very interesting collection of paintings. Includes such topics as: The Seven Corporal Works of Mercy, The Seven Deadly Sins, the Passion, the Tree of Jesse, the Suicide of Judas.

Meditation With Art

As The Catechism of the Catholic Church states: "Religious worship is not directed to images in themselves, considered as mere things, but under their distinctive aspect as images leading us on to God incarnate" (no. 2129). This site provides depictions of classic Catholic art, along with meditations.

Meditations on the Church Year by Blessed Columba Marmion

From Blessed Columbae's classic, Christ in His Mysteries: - Divine Preparations (Time of Advent) - O, Marvelous Exchange (Christmas) - Epiphany - The Blessed Virgin and the Hidden Life - The Baptism and the Temptation of Jesus - Some Aspects of the Public Life of Jesus (Lent) - Transfiguration (Second Sunday of Lent) - Christ ... Loved the Church and Delivered Himself Up for It, That He Might Sanctify It (Passiontide) - In the Footsteps of Jesus from the Pretorium to Calvary (Good Friday / Stations of the Cross) - Si Consurrexistis cum Christo (Paschal Time) - "...And Now, Father, Glorify Thy Son" (Ascension) - In Mei Memoriam (Corpus Christi) - The Mission of the Holy Spirit (Pentecost)

Meister Eckhart (ca. 1260-1327) - Sermons

My Rosary

by Pope John Paul I

Mysticism

The classic book by Evelyn Underhill.

Novenas

For another set, try: - Litanies - Prayer E-Book Novenas

Of the Fruits to be Derived From Prayer and Meditation

An excerpt from a work by St. Peter of Alcantara, a 16th-century Spanish Franciscan.

On Prayer

Writing in the late 2nd century, Tertullian demonstrates that the custom of praying at the third, sixth, and ninth hour is of very ancient origin in the Church.

On Praying the Hours

An excerpt from the liturgical code of the Rule of St. Benedict.

On the Jesus Prayer

By Princess Ileana of Romania (d. 1991). The princess, later become a nun and abbess of an Orthodox monastery, speaks on the solace of the Jesus Prayer through her own experience of losing a child.

Origen on Spirituality

Perpetual Eucharistic Adoration Handbook

A practical guide to beginning Eucharistic Adoration in your local parish.

Prayer Without Ceasing

An excerpt from The Way of the Pilgrim, a 19th-century spiritual classic of the Eastern Orthodox tradition. For the "method" of the Jesus Prayer as presented in The Way, see: - The Basic Method of the Jesus Prayer

Prayers in the Home

A good selection and explanation of the importance of family prayer and the notion of th family as "the domestic Church." From a Byzantine Catholic perspective.

Progress Through Mental Prayer

Father Edward Leen's classic study, designed to help the reader to develop a deeper prayer life.

Psalter Schemas

A very interesting presentation of the way Psalms have been used in various Breviaries, from the 6th century to the present. - The Little Office of the Blessed Virgin Mary (Ambrosian Rite)

Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite (late 5th-early 6th century)

- The Celestial Hierarchy - The Mystical Theology

Restoring Sacred Time: How the Liturgical Year Deepens Catholic faith

A nice meditation by Msgr. Peter Elliott. Excerpted from his book, Ceremonies of the Liturgical Year According to the Modern Roman Rite.

Richard Rolle (1300-1349)

The Fire of Love- The Fire of Love - The Mending of Life or Rule of Living

Rite of Eucharistic Devotion

The prayers and blessings in Latin and English.

Rosaries of All Kinds

A fascinating compilation of the many ways of saying the Rosary. See also: - Various Kinds of Rosaries and Chaplets

Rosary Prayers in Many Languages

If you ever find yourself needing to say the Rosary in Tagalog, this is the place.

Russian Icons

An index of nearly 100 icons from the 10th to the 18th centuries. For another collection, see: - The Icon Gallery

Selected Readings on Lectio Divina from the Catholic masters:

- From The Rule of St. Benedict (4th century) - From William of St. Thierry (d. 1148) - From Guigo II (d. 1193) - From The Nine Ways of Prayer of St. Dominic (1260-1288) - From The Cloud of Unknowing (13th century)

Short History of the Angelus

Summarizes the development of this staple Marian prayer. Originally published in L'Osservatore Romano.

Some Schools of Catholic Spirituality

From a 1959 book of the same title: - Benedictine Spirituality - Carmelite Spirituality - Dominican Spirituality - Franciscan Spirituality - Ignatian Spirituality - Oratorian Spirituality - The Spirituality of The Imitation of Christ - The Spirituality of St. Francis de Sales

Spiritual Theology in the Thomistic Tradition

A great introduction, by Father Jordan Aumann, O.P. See also, Father Aumann's: - Thomistic Evaluation of Love and Charity - The Contemplative Dimension of Dominican Spirituality

St. Albert the Great (1200-1280)- On Cleaving to God

St. Ambrose (340-397) - On the Mysteries

St. Anthony of Padua (1195-1231) - Sunday Sermons

St. Athanasius (295-373)

- On the Incarnation - Life of Antony

St. Augustine (354-430)

- Confessions - Enchiridion - On Christian Doctrine - On the Sermon on the Mount - An excerpt about prayer (from On the Sermon on the Mount) - On Patience

St. Basil (329-379)

- On the Holy Spirit - Nine Homilies on the Six Days of Creation - To Gregory the Theologian

St. Benedict of Nursia (480-547) - Rule for Monasteries

St. Bonaventure (1221-1274)

- Prayer after Holy Communion - Journey of the Mind into God

St. Clare of Assisi (1194-1253)

- Letters - Rule of St. Clare - Testament

St. Claude La Colombiere (1641-1682) - Spiritual Retreats

St. Columba (521-597) - Rule of St. Columba

St. Cyprian

- On the Advantage of Patience - On the Lord's Prayer

St. Edith Stein (1891-1942) - The Hidden Life: Meditations and Spiritual Texts

St. Ephraim of Syria (c. 306-373)

- The Pearl - Fifty-Five Chapters on the Beatitudes - On Love, On Psalmody, On Prayer

St. Francis de Sales (1567-1622)

- Introduction to the Devout Life - Treatise on the Love of God - Sermons on Prayer

St. Francis of Assisi (1182-1226)

- The Canticle of Brother Son - Praises of God Most High - Exposition of the 'Our Father' - An Exhortation to Praise God - The Office of the Passion of the Lord - A Prayer Before the Crucifix - Rule of the Friars Minor

St. Gregory of Nazianzus (329-389) - Second Paschal Oration

St. Gregory the Great (c. 540-604)

- Dialogues, Book II (on the life and miracles of St. Benedict) - Commentary on the Book of Job, Books I-V

St. Ignatius of Antioch (50-107) - Epistle to the Smyrnaeans

St. Ignatius of Loyola (1491-1556)

- The Spiritual Exercises - Selected Letters and Instructions

St. Jerome (320-420) - On the Song of Songs

St. John Chrysostom (347-407)

- The Easter Sermon of John Chrysostom - Prayer of St. John Chrysostom

St. John of the Cross (1542-1591)

- Ascent of Mount Carmel. - Counsels to a Religious - Dark Night of the Soul - The Living Flame of Love - Sayings of Light and Love - The Spiritual Canticle of the Soul and the Bridegroom Christ - Poetry of St. John of the Cross

St. John Vianney (1786-1859) - St. John Vianney (1786-1859)

St. Josemaria Escriva (1902-1975) - Writings

St. Louis de Montfort (1673-1716) - True Devotion to the Blessed Virgin Mary

St. Maximus the Confessor (580-662)- On Knowledge

St. Patrick (385-461) - Confession

St. Peter of Alcantara (1499-1562) On the Fruit to be Derived from Prayer and Meditation

St. Sophronious (ca. 600) - Life of St. Mary of Egypt

St. Teresa of Avila (1515-1582)

- Autobiography - Interior Castle - Way of Perfection

St. Teresa's Teaching on the Grades of Prayer

A good introduction by Father Jordan Aumann, O.P.

St. Therese of Lisieux (1873-1897) - Poems

St. Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274) - The Our Father

Stations of the Cross

With reflections by Mother M. Angelica, P.C.P.A., founder of The Eternal Word Television Network. See also: - The Living Way of the Cross

Studies in Jewish Prayer

A good introduction to the origins and development of prayer in Judaism, with implications for the development of Christian prayer.

Sulpitius Severus (363-420) - The Life of St. Martin

Symbols in Christian Art and Architecture

An illustrated dictionary of Christian symbolism. See also: - Christian Symbols

Tertullian

- On Prayer or Prayer - Patience

The Art of Trinitarian Prayer

A reflection on Pope John Paul II's Apostolic Letter, Novo Millennio Ineunte. By Jesus Castellano Cervera, originally published in L'Osservatore Romano.

The Catholic Art Gallery

A splendid collection of artists including Raphael, Caravaggio, Cimabue, Rembrandt, Bellini and more. Also includes a special collection of Paintings of Angels. See also: - Sacred Art by Giotto (d. 1337) - The Book of Hours of Jean, Duke of Berry (the greatest of illuminated manuscripts, ca. 1485) - The Jacques Maritain Center Art Gallery - The Catacombs of Saint Callixtus - Breviary of Chertsey Abbey (ca. 1307) - Life and Death and Miracles of St. Jerome (Images) - Iconography of St. Sebastian - Thais 1200 Years of Italian Sculpture

The Cell of Self-Knowledge: Seven Early English Mystical Treatises

(Includes works by Richard of St. Victor, Margery Kempe, Walter Hilton, and the author of The Cloud of Unknowing.)

The Divine Office as the Church's Prayer of Praise and Intercession

Father John Hardon, S.J., begins his study of the Divine Office with the notion that it is "The Song of Heaven brought down to earth by the Incarnation." He continues: "Christ Jesus (the Church tells us), the high priest of the new and eternal covenant, taking human nature, introduced into this earthly exile , that hymn which is sung throughout all ages in the halls of heaven. He joins the entire community of mankind to Himself, associating it with His own singing of this canticle of divine praise." See also, Father Hardon's: - The Divine Office as Liturgy - The Divine Office as a Form of Sacrifice

The Epistles for Lent and Easter

Translations and Commentary by Father Ronald Knox. Not complete, but still helpful. - First Sunday - Second Sunday - Third Sunday - Fourth Sunday - Passion Sunday - Palm Sunday - Easter Day

The Exsultet

Father Jerome Gassner, O.S.B. looks at this ancient prayer that serves as a prelude to the Easter solemnities. The Exsultet is “a majestic proclamation of the Resurrection of Christ, a dramatic invitation to heaven and earth to join with the Church in joy and jubilation.�

The Friars Preachers

An excellent overview of Dominican spirituality from the Dictionary of Spirituality. See also, by Father Benedict Ashley, O.P.: - The Dominicans

The History of Eucharistic Adoration

A comprehensive study by Father John Hardon, S.J.

The Holy of Eucharistic Adoration

A good introduction to this devotion.

The Human Heart of Jesus

By Herbert Ratner. Originally published in New Covenant magazine.

The Immaculate Conception

An excerpt from The Church's Year of Grace by Pius Parsch.

The Jesus Prayer: Prayer of the Heart

A good historical overview of the prayer. An Orthodox Christian site. See also: - The Jesus Prayer

The Litanies

A good explanation of the history and practice of praying Litanies, includes links to several Church-approved Litanies. See also: - The Litany (Catholic Encyclopedia) - Novena (Catholic Encyclopedia)

The Little Flowers of St. Francis of Assisi

The Liturgical Calendar

An excellent, well-designed site. By the organization Women for Faith and Family. For other good resources, try: - The Catholic Calendar Page - The CIN Catholic Calendar Page - Roman Catholic Liturgical Calendars

The Liturgical Year

By Abbot Gueranger, O.S.B. This is the preface to the classic book on the Church's Liturgy, The Liturgical Year. See also Gueranger's reflections on individual feasts and seasons of the Church year: - The History of Advent and On Holy Communion During Advent - The Feast of the Immaculate Conception - History of Lent and Practice During Lent - History of Passiontide and Holy Week and Practice During Passiontide and Holy Week - History of Paschal Time and Practice During Paschal Time - Feast of the Most Holy Trinity - Ascension

The Liturgy of the Hours in Our Lives of Prayer

In this 1998 pastoral letter, Archbishop Elden Curtiss of Omaha, Neb. urges priests to renew their devotion to praying the Divine Office.

The Mysteries of the Rosary

A short book of meditations by the 20th-century Benedictine abbott, Blessed Columba Marmion.

The Necessity and Power of Prayer

An excellent meditation by St. Alphonsus de Liguori. Highly recommended.

The Prayer of the Church

By St. Edith Stein. A complex but rewarding consideration, in which the saint argues that "The prayer of the church is the prayer of the ever-living Christ. Its prototype is Christ's prayer during his human life."

The Revised Book of the Liturgy of the Hours (Laudis Canticum)

Pope Paul VI's Apostolic Constitution of 1970. See also: - The General Instruction on the Liturgy of the Hours

The Rosary in Image and Text

Meditations and artwork. A nice site. - The Joyful Mysteries - The Sorrowful Mysteries - The Glorious Mysteries - The Luminous Mysteries

The Sacraments and the History of Salvation

An extraordinary article by Cardinal Jean Danielou, S.J. on the connection between the sacraments and the marvelous works wrought by God in the Old and New Testaments. A quote: "The sacraments are conceived in relation to the acts of God in the Old Testament and the New. God acts in the world; His actions are the mirabilia, the deeds that are His alone. God creates, judges, makes a covenant, is present, makes holy, delivers. These same acts are carried out in the different phases of the history of salvation....The sacraments are simply the continuation in the era of the Church of God's acts in the Old Testament and the New. This is the proper significance of the relationship between the Bible and the liturgy. The Bible is a sacred history; the liturgy is a sacred history." Must reading.

The Scriptural Rosary

- Joyful Mysteries - Luminous Mysteries - Sorrowful Mysteries - Glorious Mysteries

The Six Great Litanies of the Church

A collection of the Litany of the Holy Name of Jesus; the Litany of the Sacred Heart; the Litany of the Precious Blood; the Litany of the Blessed Virgin Mary; the Litany of Saint Joseph;t he Litany of the Saints. For more Litanies, see: - The Litany Collection

The Spirituality of the Catacombs

A very interesting short piece that tries to show that "the spirituality of the catacombs is the spirituality of the early Church."

The Splendors of Grace

An essay on union with God by the great Mattias Joseph Scheeben.

The Structure of the Soul and Mystical Experience According to St. Thomas Aquinas

A good study by Father M.-D. Chenu, O.P.

The Three Ways of the Spiritual Life

The little classic by the great Thomist, Father Reginald Garrigou-Lagrange, O.P.

The Vatican's Holy Rosary Page

Good, basic site for prayers, papal teachings and Scripture texts associated with each of the mysteries.

The Veneration of Icons in the Tradition of the Byzantine Rite

A thorough survey. See these related links: - What is an Icon?

The Way of the Cross

A fine set of meditations by St. Josemaria Escriva. See also: - The Way of the Cross by St. Francis of Assisi - A Scriptural Way of the Cross with Meditations by St. Alphonsus Liguori

The Way of the Cross

A nice site with texts and artwork. Includes the following mediations: - Cardinal Newman's Long Meditations - Cardinal Newman's Shorter Meditations - The Stations by F.X. Lansance - Rutter's 1875 Stations of the Cross - The Holy Way of the Cross

The Way of the Cross - Meditations by Pope John Paul II

Three excellent sets of meditations are available: - Good Friday 2003 - Good Friday 2001 - Good Friday 2000

The Way of the Cross in the Company of the Saints

Composed by Father Antonio Maria Sicari, O.C.D. for the Vatican's celebration of the Jubilee for Priests (2000).

The Way of the Cross in the Holy Land

Pictures and meditations.

The Way of the Cross with St. Paul of the Cross

As prayed by Pope Paul VI at the Colosseum in Rome on Good Friday, 1975.

Theosis: The Final Mystery of the Rosary

A fine meditation on the Mystery of Mary's crowning as Queen of Heaven. By Stratford Caldecott.

Thomas a Kempis (1379-1471) - The Imitation of Christ

Treasury of Latin Prayers

A good source for prayers in Latin with English translation. For help with the pronunciation: - Ecclesiastical Latin Pronunciation

Universalis: The Liturgy of the Hours

Lets you pray the Liturgy of the Hours every day of the year. Provides both text and guide. Similar sites include: - Pray the Psalms Daily with the Monks - The Liturgy of the Hours Apostolate

Virtual Stations of the Cross

From St. Charles Borromeo Church in Picayne, Miss. With texts and prayers drawn from the Douay-Rheims Bible.

Walter Hilton (d. 1396)

- The Scale (or Ladder) of Perfection or The Scale of Perfection - The Song of Angels - Treatise Written to a Devout Man

Web Gallery of Art

A virtual museum and searchable database of European painting and sculpture of the Gothic, Renaissance and Baroque periods (1150-1800), currently containing over 11,600 reproductions. Commentaries on pictures, biographies of artists are available.

Sacraments and Worship

A Basic Theology of Marriage

A fine treatment by Dr. Christopher West. See also his: - John Paul II's Theology of the Body: Key to an Authentic Marital & Family Spirituality - What the Church Really Teaches about Responsible Parenthood - The Theology of the Body & The New Evangelization - A Response to Luke Timothy Johnson's Critique of John Paul II's "Disembodied" Theology of the Body; for Johnson's critique, see here - In-Vitro Fertilization and the Hermeneutic of the Gift

A Charter for Priestly Holiness

Excellent reflection by Father Thomas McGovern. - Part 2 See also by Father McGovern: - The Priest, the Jubilee, and the Holy Spirit

A Commentary on the Holy Mysteries (Maronite Catholic)

- The Anaphora (Eucharistic Prayer) - The Maronite Liturgy: An Explanation

A Priest Forever

An inspiring and insightful set of meditations by St. Josemaria Escriva. From his book, In Love With the Church.

A Theological Meditation On The Liturgy Of The Eucharist

Cistercian Father Roch Kereszty sees the Eucharist as the continual reenactment of God's self-emptying love.

A Treatise on the Blessed Sacrament

By St. Thomas More. A short piece composed in the Tower of London in 1534, the year before his martyrdom.

A Walk Through the Liturgy (Byzantine Catholic)

A good introduction to the Mass from a Byzantine Catholic perpsective. See also: - Comments on the Divine Liturgy

A Worldwide Tour of Churches, Cathedrals and Monasteries

An inspiring set of links to the finest examples of Catholic architecture in the world. See also: - Churches of Rome - Saints in 16th-Century Mexican Churches

Alexandrian Tradition

The liturgical tradition of Egypt, which tradition holds was first evangelized by St. Mark who became the first bishop of Alexandria. The Liturgy of St. Mark is still the basis for the modern liturgies of the Churches of the Alexandrian tradition. Eastern Catholic Churches in the Alexandrian tradition include: - Coptic Catholic Church - Ge'ez Ethiopian Catholic Church For the liturgical tradition of the Alexandrian Catholic Churches: - The Divine Liturgy of St. Mark

An Early Armenian Lectionary

A Lectionary used in the Jerusalem Church, circa 417-439 A.D. As with all the ancient Lectionaries, there is much to be learned by studying how the early Church leaders matched up readings from the Old and New Testaments. For another example from the Jerusalem Church, see: - Another Early Armenian Lectionary

An Early East Syrian Lectionary

The Scripture readings you would have heard at Mass in Eastern Syria in the sixth century. For other options: - Lectionary of the East Syrian Monaryer of Mar Aziza - East Syrian Lectionary of the Church of the Forty Martyrs

Anointing of the Sick: Medicine for Sinners

A good meditation. By Father William Saunders.

Antiochian Tradition

Antioch is where believers were first called "Christians" (see Acts 11:26) and St. Ignatius, the bishop-martyr of Antioch was credited with first using the term "Catholic" to describe the Church in 110 A.D. The Liturgy in this tradition is based on the ancient Liturgy of St. James. Eastern Catholic Churches in the Antiochian tradition include: - Syro-Malankara Catholic Church - Maronite Catholic Church - Syrian Catholic Church For the liturgical tradition of the Antiochean Catholic Churches: - Liturgy of Jerusalem (St. James) - The Divine Liturgy of St. James - West Syrian Rite (Antioch)

Armenian Tradition

The Armenian liturgical tradition draws on elements of the Syriac, Jerusalem and Byzantine rites. It uses a liturgy attributed to St. Basil. For the liturgical tradition of the Armenian Catholic Churches: - The Liturgy of St. Basil - Coptic Liturgy of St. Basil - Liturgy of St. Basil (Modern)

Art and Liturgy - The Question of Images

An excellent consideration by Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger on the meaning of Christian art and its relationship with worship. He surveys the origin of images used for worship from Old Testament times through the first millennium of the Church. See also, Cardinal Ratzinger's: - Art, Image and Artists

Art and Liturgy: The Splendor of Faith

Looks at the role played by the visual arts in both Catholic and Orthodox liturgies throughout history. By Catholic artist, H. Reed Armstrong.

Art History Resources on the Web

An amazing collection of links. Some of particular interest: - Paleo-Christian Art - Early Christian Art and More Early Christian Art - Medieval and Early Christian Art - Early Christian Architecture - Book of Kells and The Four Evangelists from the Book of Kells - Carolingian Era - Middle Ages - Art for the Christian Liturgy in the Middle Ages - The Cult of the Virgin - Death in the Middle Ages - Icons and Iconoclasm in the Byzantium - Private Devotion in Medieval Christianity - Monasticism in Medieval Christianity - Relics and Reliquaries in Medieval Christianity - Stained Glass in Medieval Christianity - The Last Things in Medieval French Art - Veneration of the Saints in Medieval French Art - 15th-Century Art in Northern Europe & Spain - 15th-Century Italian Art: Early Renaissance - 16th-Century Art in Italy: The Renaissance - 16th-century Art: Northern Europe and Spain - 17th-Century Baroque Art

Art in the Vatican

Links to the treasures of St. Peter's Basilica, the Pontifical Palaces and more. See also: - Sistine Chapel - Art by Raphael in the Vatican - The Vatican Museums

Artwork of Biblical and Liturgical Themes

A good sampling of artwork ranging from classic masters to contemporary. Alphabetical by theme: - Aaron to Dreams - Easter to Ishmael - Jacob to Mustard Seed - Nahum to Ruth - Salome to Zechariah

Baptism

From The Catholic Encyclopedia. See also: - Baptismal Font - Baptismal Vows - Christian Names

Biblical Texts Related to the Catholic Mass

An excellent guide by Father Felix Just, S.J.

Byzantine Tradition

The largest of the Eastern rites, the Byzantine tradition descends from the ancient Church of Constantinople. Its Liturgy is based on the Liturgy of St. John Chrysostom, patriarch of Constantinople. Eastern Catholic Churches in the Byzantine tradition include: - Albanian Catholic Church - Bulgarian Catholic Church - Belarusan Catholic Church - Croatian Catholic Church - Greek Catholic Church - Hungarian Catholic Church - Melkite Greek Catholic Church - Romanian Greek Catholic Church - Russian Catholic Church - Ruthenian Catholic Church - Slovak Catholic Church - Ukranian Greek Catholic Church For the liturgical tradition of the Byzantine Catholic Churches: - Liturgy of St. John Chrysostom (Modern) - Greek Rites - Ruthenian Rite

Calvary and the Mass: A Missal Companion

A fine meditation by Archbishop Fulton J. Sheen.

Cantus: A Database for Latin Ecclesiastical Chant

An index of chants used in the Church's liturgical office. For advanced-levl scholars only.

Carol Gerten's Fine Art (CGFA)

An excellent site with lots of good Catholic art. Search by: - Artist Name - Featured Artists

Catholic Homilies

Examples from churches around the country. For other sources, see: - Sources for Sunday Homilies

Chaldean Tradition

Also called East Syrian Catholics, this liturgical tradition descends from the ancient rites used in Persia and Syria. Eastern Catholic Churches in the Chaldean tradition include: - Chaldean Catholic Church - Syro-Malabar Catholic Church For the liturgical tradition of the Chaldean Catholic Churches: - Chaldean Mass (Modern) - East Syrian Rite (Chaldean) - St. Thomas or Malabar Christians - Selections from the Assyrian Liturgy

Christ in the Home

A fine meditation by Father Raoul Plus, S.J. on Catholic marriage and family life.

Church Compositions Without Liturgical Foundation

Although written in a 1933 edition of the Catholic journal, Orates Fratres, offers history and principles for sacred music that remain relevant. - Part 2

Church Fathers on Baptism

A good collection of basic texts on: - Infant Baptism - Born Again - Triune Baptism

Church Fathers on the Eucharist

A good collection of basic texts on: - The Real Presence - Transubstantiation See also, the fine collection of citations in: - The Church Fathers Believed in the Real Presence

Church Fathers on the Sacrament of Confirmation

Documents illustrating the practice of Confirmation/Chrismation.

Church Fathers on the Sacrament of Extreme Unction (Anointing of the Sick)

Texts that show that the early Church believed in the sacramental nature of the anointing of the sick.

Church Fathers on the Sacrament of Holy Matrimony

A collection of texts that shows the early belief that Christ elevated marriage to a sacrament.

Church Fathers on the Sacrament of Holy Orders

These texts show the Church Fathers' assumption that Christ wanted a ministerial priesthood.

Church Fathers on the Sacrament of Penance

Some statements illustrating the practice of auricular confession. See also, a short analysis: - Sacrament of Penance in the Early Church

Comparative Modern Western Lectionaries

Detailed tables compare the selection of readings in the Anglican Book of Common Prayer (listed in blue), the Roman Catholic Lectionary for Mass (red) and the Revised Common Lectionaries (green). Divided according to: - First Readings - Psalms - Second Readings - Gospel Readings

Confirmation

From The Catholic Encyclopedia.

Eastern Catholic Liturgical Music

The divine liturgies and hymns of the five Eastern Catholic rites in MIDI form.

Eastern Churches

An in-depth look from The Catholic Encyclopedia. For good overviews and background, see also: - Rites - The Eastern Rites Today - Catholic Eastern Churches - The Five Eastern Rites - The Formation of the Eastern Rites - Eastern Rite Catholic Churches (Listing by Patriarchate) - Eastern Rites: A Family Tree - Rites in the United States - Eastern Catholics in American (U.S. Bishops)

Ecclesiastical Music

From the Catholic Encyclopedia. See also: - Music of the Mass - Liturgical Chant - Gregorian Chant - Plain Chant - Congregational Singing - Musical Instruments in Church Services - Music of Vespers - Passion Music

EIKON Images Database for Biblical Studies

An good collection. Browse by: - Biblical Book - Geographical Location - Object Type (map, coin, scroll, etc.) - Topic

Eucharist

From The Catholic Encyclopedia. See also: - The Blessed Eucharist as a Sacrament - The Blessed Eucharist as a Sacrifice - Early Symbols of the Eucharist - Real Presence - Holy Communion - Liturgy - Liturgy of the Mass (Roman) - Ambrosian Liturgy (St. Ambrose) - Celtic Rite (Ireland, Britain) - Sarum Rite (England, Scotland, Ireland, Wales) - Gallican Rite (France) - Mozarabic (Spain, Portugal) - Frequent Communion - Communion under Both Kinds - Communion of Children - Communion of the Sick - Viaticum

Eucharist and the Mass

Frank Sheed's classic explanation, from Theology for Beginners.

Eucharist, Communion and Solidarity

On the "transformative" power of the Sacrament. By Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger, Prefect of the Vatican's Congregation for the Doctrine of Faith. Also highly recommended are Cardinal Ratzinger's: - The Greatest Mystery - The Theology of Kneeling

Explanation of the Sacraments

From the Catechetical Instructions of St. Thomas Aquinas.

Extreme Unction

From The Catholic Encyclopedia. See also: - Christian Burial - Office of the Dead - Cemetery

First Confession and First Communion

An insightful reflection by Cardinal John Wright, the late Prefect of the Vatican's Sacred Congregation for the Clergy.

From One Eucharistic Prayer to Many: How it Happened and Why

A good historical study by Father Cassian Folsom, O.S.B. Originally published in Adoremus Bulletin.

Gallican Lectionaries

A fascinating comparison of 13 lectionaries from France, dating between the sixth and eighth centuries.

Heaven and Earth in Byzantine Liturgy

(Byzantine Catholic) By Khaled Anatolios. A quote: "The Byzantine liturgy is always concerned to proclaim that by the power of the Holy Spirit space, time, and even human sinfulness are transformed and integrated into the union of earth and heaven accomplished by the unsurpassable self-offering of Christ....Ultimately the Byzantine liturgy is about the startling good news that once we were lost on earth and in bondage to sin and death, but now earth itself is lost in heaven, in thrall to the love and beauty of the triune God."

Holy Land Photos

Fully searchable collection of nearly 150 sites with 1500 photos of the Holy Land. To browse: - Site List Other sources for photos related to biblical scenes: - Bible Places - Virtual Travel Through the Holy Places - Christian Sanctuaries of the Holy Land - Biblical Excursions in the Holy Land - The Holy Land of the First Crusaders

Holy Orders

A beautiful meditation by the great Catholic novelist, Francois Mauriac.

Holy Orders

From The Catholic Encyclopedia. See also: - Bishop - Priest and Priesthood - Deacons and Deaconesses - Minor Orders - Anglican Orders

Homilies of Father Raniero Cantalamessa, O.F.M. Cap.

Learn from one of the best - the official preacher for the papal household of Pope John Paul II.

How Does Music Express the Word of God, the Vision of God?

Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger on the role of music in the encounter with the divine in the "cosmic liturgy." See also by Cardinal Ratzinger: - "In the Presence of Angels I Will Sing Your Praise" - Cardinal Ratzinger On Liturgical Music "The Cultural Challenge vs. The Biblical Culture Of Faith" "The Sociological Challenge vs. True Christian Anthropology" "The 'Postconciliar' Challenge vs. The Cosmic Liturgy"

Hymns by Scripture Reference

An excellent resource. The hymns included are from many Christian denominations, but the collection provides an excellent way to study the biblical foundations and assocations in worship music. See also: - Cyber Hymnal™

Instrumental Music and the Liturgy

Examines the history of the use of instruments in Church music, from the first century through the pontificate of Pope Pius XII.

Instrumental Music in Church

Examines the use of instrumental music in the sacred ceremonies of the Old Law, and the way in which it came to form an integral part of Catholic worship.

Jesus and the High Priest

A study of the Biblical idea of priesthood and its relationship to the New Testament understanding of Jesus' high priestly role. By Crispin H.T. Fletcher-Louis.

Lectionary

A good short introduction to Lectionaries, the name broadly given to collections of Scripture readings intended to be read during Mass. Also helpful is the General Instruction on the Roman Missal which explains that the readings for the Sunday celebration of the Mass are intended to demonstrate "the unity of each Testament and of the history of salvation." - An Overview of the Lectionary

Lectionary Readings of Ambrose of Milan

Not really a lectionary but a list of Scripture references culled from Ambrose's sermons. Still an interesting reflection of how the Scripture was used in the litrugy and in preaching in the early Church.

Lectionary Readings of St. Augustine

Not a complete lectionary, but a list of readings compiled from the sermons of St. Augustine. Suggestive of how the Bible was used in the liturgy in North Africa in the fourth and fifth centuries. The association of New and Old Testament texts and Psalms is instructive, too, for insights into how Augustine and his contemporaries interpreted the Bible. For another set of liturgical readings culled from Augustine's sermons, see: - Undated Scripture References in the Preaching of St. Augustine

Let Us Love the Most Blessed Sacrament

A short meditation by St. Peter Julian Eymard.

Marriage and the Complementarity of Male and Female

An excellent consideration by a top moral theologian, William May. Also by May, see: - Marriage: A Person-Affirming, Love-Enabling, Life-Giving and Sanctifying Reality - Marriage: A Common Endeavor - Contraception, Gateway to the Culture of - The Mission of Fatherhood - Begetting vs. Making Babies

Medieval Wall Painting in the English Parish

A very interesting collection of paintings. Includes such topics as: The Seven Corporal Works of Mercy, The Seven Deadly Sins, the Passion, the Tree of Jesse, the Suicide of Judas.

Meditation With Art

As The Catechism of the Catholic Church states: "Religious worship is not directed to images in themselves, considered as mere things, but under their distinctive aspect as images leading us on to God incarnate" (no. 2129). This site provides depictions of classic Catholic art, along with meditations.

Meditations Before Mass

By Father Romano Guardini, one of the pioneers of authentic liturgical reform in the 20th century.

Old Testament Paradigms for New Testament Worship

A good treatment by Walter Maier, a Lutheran scholar. A quote: "Worship deals with the changeless God who has acted in the past, who continues to act in the present, and who will act in the future, as His Word makes clear."

Origins and Meaning of the Christian Altar

A good historical overview.

Passage to Heaven: An Appreciation of the Divine Liturgy

(Byzantine Catholic) A fine treatment of the various parts of the Mass, written from a Melkite Catholic perspective. See also from the same perspective: - Come Let Us Worship Christ Our God: Introduction to the Theology of the Divine Liturgy

Perpetual Eucharistic Adoration Handbook

A practical guide to beginning Eucharistic Adoration in your local parish.

Preaching and Biblical Theology

Though written from a Protestant perspective, there is much to be learned here about the need for preaching to reflect a biblical theology that provides a unified vision of the Christian mystery. Keep in mind that, in contrast to the emphasis here, good Catholic biblical theology always sees the culmination of the Bible's unified vision in the Church and the sacraments, especially the Eucharist. See also: - Building the Biblical Theological Sermon (Part 1) - Building the Biblical Theological Sermon (Part 2) - The Relationship Between Exegesis and Expository Preaching (.pdf files, requires free Adobe Acrobat Reader.) - Guidelines for Understanding and Proclaiming Old Testament Narratives

Priestly Identity: A Study in the Theology of Priesthood

An abridged essay on the book of the same title by Father Thomas McGovern. For individual chapters, see: - Preface - Introduction: I and II - Celibacy - A Historical Perspective: I, II, III - Development of a Christian Anthropology

Rediscovering Frequent Reflection

An excellent, practical reflection by Father Ronald Lawler, O.F.M. Cap.

Rediscovering the Holy Sacrifice

Dominican Father Aidan Nichols, compares Pope John Paul II'ss encyclical, Ecclesia de Eucharistia with the eucharistic writings of St. Thomas Aquinas.

Renaissance Liturgical Imprints: A Census

A database of information about worship books printed before 1601. Includes nearly 14,000 titles from Catholic, Protestant and Jewish traditions.

Roman Catholic Lectionary Website

An extremely helpful resource created by Father Felix Just, S.J. of Loyola Marymount University. In addition to various articles that analyze and compare various versions of the Lectionary, the site includes: - Calendar of Lectionary Cycles and Moveable Liturgical Feasts 1969-2050 - The Lectionary for Mass (1998) - The Lectionary for Mass (1970) - The Roman Missal (1570) - An Overview of the Gospel Readings during the Sundays of Ordinary Time - An Overview of the Sunday Readings from the New Testament Acts and Epistles - An Overview of Common Responsorial Psalms and Alleluia Verses - John's Gospel used on Sundays and Major Feasts - John's Gospel used on Weekdays and Special Masses - Texts of John's Gospel Not used in the Lectionary for Mass - Johannine Epistles used on Sundays, Weekdays, and Special Masses

Sacrament of Confirmation (What Is it All About?)

A good introduction.

Sacrament of Marriage

From The Catholic Encyclopedia. See also: - Moral and Canonical Aspect of Marriage - History of Marriage - Ritual of Marriage - Putative Marriage - Divorce (in Moral Theology) and Divorce (in Civil Jurisprudence) - Mixed Marriage - Civil Marriage - Validation of Marriage - Banns of Marriage - Betrothal

Sacrament of Penance

From The Catholic Encyclopedia. See also: - Absolution - Attrition - Contrition - Reserved Cases - Seal of Confession

Sacramentals

From The Catholic Encyclopedia. See also: - Holy Water - Medals - Sign of the Cross

Sacred Scripture And Tradition: Theologically-Based Architectural Principles For A New Millennium

A good essay on the sacred function of the church building and theological principles for good church architecture.

Sacred Signs

By Father Romano Guardini, this little book looks at "sacramentals" and other signs that open up the spiritual core of the Liturgy. Included: the Sign of the Cross; Kneeling; Standing; Striking the Breast; Candles; Holy Water; Bells; and more.

Sacred Signs and Active Participation at Mass

"Active participation" and the meaning of bodily gestures required in the Liturgy. By Father Cassian Folsom, O.S.B.

Saints and Popes on The Eucharist

A good collection of short quotations.

Scriptural Basis for the Sacrament of Penance

A good short study by Father William Most.

Select Teachings of the Church Fathers:

- The Book on the Mysteries By St. Ambrose of Milan (5th century). - Catechetical Lectures By St. Cyril of Jerusalem (4th century) - Instructions to Catechumens By St. John Chrysostom (5th century)

Silence and the Sacred

A good meditation on the need to recover the sense of awe and mystery at the Mass. By Father Ralph Wright, O.S.B.

Some Reflections on Confirmation

Written for the official Vatican newspaper, L'Osservatore Romano, in 1978, by Cardinal John Wright, then-Prefect of the Sacred Congregation for the Clergy. A quote: "One hears this idea of militancy sometimes soft-toned in these days of dreams and programs of peace, but the Christian life remains a battle from the beginning to the end, and Confirmation provides the special grace to wage that battle and to remain faithful to the graces of the other Sacraments."

St. Augustine's Thought on the Effects of Original Sin on Marriage

A good theological reflection by Father J. Brian Bransfield.

St. Charles Borromeo Lectionary Site

Excellent, detailed studies of the readings for each Sunday of the liturgical year. (.pdf files, requires free Adobe Acrobat Reader).

Symbols in Christian Art and Architecture

An illustrated dictionary of Christian symbolism.

Talks on the Sacramentals

Father Arthur Tonne's 1950 book explains 60 common sacramentals.

The Akathist Hymns (Byzantine Catholic)

The akathist is one of the most ancient ornces or collection of prayers in the Byzantine Church. It is a prayer of veneration, thanksgiving and petition. "Akathist" means standing because it is an expression of profound joy in recognizing the honor being paid to Our Lord, Our Lady, or the saint who is being venerated.

The Altar and the Direction of Liturgical Prayer

Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger makes the case for reconsidering the direction the priest faces during the celebration of Mass - toward the liturgical East ("ad orientem").

The Antiquity of the Doctrine of Transubstantiation

Although more than 100 years old, still a good look at the evidence in the language of the ancient liturgies of the Church.

The Catholic Art Gallery

A splendid collection of artists including Raphael, Caravaggio, Cimabue, Rembrandt, Bellini and more. Also includes a special collection of Paintings of Angels. See also: - Sacred Art by Giotto (d. 1337) - The Book of Hours of Jean, Duke of Berry (the greatest of illuminated manuscripts, ca. 1485) - The Jacques Maritain Center Art Gallery - The Catacombs of Saint Callixtus - Breviary of Chertsey Abbey (ca. 1307) - Life and Death and Miracles of St. Jerome (Images) - Iconography of St. Sebastian - Thais 1200 Years of Italian Sculpture

The Divine Liturgy of St. John Chrysostom (Byzantine Catholic)

A description of the modern order of the Mass as celebrated in the Byzantine Rite of the Catholic Church.

The Eucharist in Scripture

A good, short collection of texts and interpretations.

The Eucharist Sacrifice - Banquet of the New Covenant

A quote: "From ancient biblical times the sacred union of covenant was constituted by means of a sacrifice and/or a sacred banquet. The Lord Jesus used these familiar methods at the Last Supper to establish God's New and Everlasting Covenant. To establish this Covenant, Jesus instituted the Sacrament of the Eucharist, which He made both a sacrifice and a sacred meal...By establishing the New Covenant through the Eucharist, Jesus made His Spouse the Church to be a Eucharistic People by reason of her very origin." By Msgr. Anthony A. La Femina.

The Exsultet

Father Jerome Gassner, O.S.B. looks at this ancient prayer that serves as a prelude to the Easter solemnities. The Exsultet is “a majestic proclamation of the Resurrection of Christ, a dramatic invitation to heaven and earth to join with the Church in joy and jubilation.

The Georgian Lectionary

The Lectionary in use in Jerusalem, circa 700 A.D.

The Greek Orthodox Lectionary

The Lectionary used in the modern Greek Orthodox Church, but which has remained almost exactly the same since the seventh century.

The Hispano-Mozarabic Lectionary

A liturgy dating back to 1067 Spain. This page includes readings for a two-year cycle of liturgies and - rare among ancient liturgies - includes explicit use of the Book of Revelation.

The Holy of Eucharistic Adoration

A good introduction to this devotion.

The Homily

An excellent summary of the purpose and various methods of preaching. From The Catholic Encyclopedia.

The Language of Adoration

As considered in The Catechism of the Catholic Church and the writings of St. Thomas Aquinas and St. Francis de Sales.

The Missale Ambrosianum

Presents of a chart of Scripture readings for the daily Masses at the Cathedral of Milan, as found in the ancient Ambrosian Missal, said to have originated with the great fourth-century bishop, St. Ambrose of Milan. By studying how this ancient Missal puts together Old Testament and New Testament readings, we gain a better understanding of how the early Church interpreted the Old Testament in light of the New Testament and the New Testament in light of the Old.

The Mystery of the Blessed Eucharist

Cardinal Charles Journet shows the gulf between Catholic belief in the Real Presence with Lutheran and Calvinist doctrines. A quote: "The Catholic Church will never accept the essential equivalence between the doctrine of the Council of Trent and the conflicting doctrines - at variance also with each other - of Luther and of Calvin. The day on which the Church were to accept it, she would cease to exist, she would become Protestant."

The Origin of the Hymns of the Liturgy

A brief history of the origin of hymns, showing their origin in the memory and custom of Jewish ritual. Includes consideration of the Divine Office and Breviary and the hymns of St. Ambrose, St. Gregory the Great and St. Thomas Aquinas.

The Reserved Eucharist

A thoughtful reflection by Msgr. M. Francis Mannion.

The Sacraments and the History of Salvation

An extraordinary article by Cardinal Jean Danielou, S.J. on the connection between the sacraments and the marvelous works wrought by God in the Old and New Testaments. A quote: "The sacraments are conceived in relation to the acts of God in the Old Testament and the New. God acts in the world; His actions are the mirabilia, the deeds that are His alone. God creates, judges, makes a covenant, is present, makes holy, delivers. These same acts are carried out in the different phases of the history of salvation....The sacraments are simply the continuation in the era of the Church of God's acts in the Old Testament and the New. This is the proper significance of the relationship between the Bible and the liturgy. The Bible is a sacred history; the liturgy is a sacred history." Must reading.

The Sacred Mysteries (Maronite Catholic)

- Baptism and Chismation - Reconciliation - Mystery of the Eucharist - Mystery of Crowning (Marriage) - Mystery of Holy Orders - Anointing of the Sick

The Sacrifice of the Mass: The Eucharistic Words of Christ

On the critical importance of understanding the Mass as sacrifice. A quote: "Jesus transformed the Passover meal of the Old Covenant with Israel into the Eucharist of His New Covenant with His new Israel, His Church." By Msgr. Peter Elliot. - Part 2

The Soulful Homily

A good reflection by Father Thomas Dailey, O.S.F.S. Writing to fellow priests, he says: " Our congregations need direct reference to the persuasive element that links truth and response in our homilies.

The Story of Gregorian Chant

From Solesemes Abbey, France. Also includes examples of the various chants for the Mass and the Divine Office: - The Musical Forms of Gregorian Chant For more background, see: - The Chant in Latin - Chants for the Mass - Chants for the Divine Office

The Sunday Sermons of St. Anthony of Padua

A master of biblical theology.

The Tabernacle: Its History, Structure and Custody

A good history not only of the tabernacle, but of the practice of reserving the Holy Eucharist in it.

The Temple as the Maternal Place of the Church

Cardinal Christoph Schonborn, O.P. explores the ancient image of Mother Church, Mater Ecclesia, and "the Church as the maternal place, the source of all that is living and thus the source of art as well."

The Traditional Roman Hymnal

An excellent collection of music (in Latin and English) and examples of traditional Catholic hymns in the MIDI format.

The Vatican's Musical Offering

Download mp3s of sacred and classical music played by teachers and students of the Pontifical Institute of Sacred Music. Includes selections from Masses, from various seasons of the liturgical year and from classical composers.

The Veil, the Chalice and the Dignity of Man

Father Jerry Pokorsky says that "like the sacred vessels at Mass, we were made to receive Christ."

The Vineyard and the Farms: A Sermon for Palm Sunday

By N.T. Wright, top Scripture scholar and Anglican bishop of Durham, England. For other sermons by Bishop Wright: - The Vine and the Branches (5th Sunday of Easter) - New Law, New Temple, New World (Pentecost) - True and False Comfort (Isaiah 40:1-11) - The God of Love and Peace (Trinity Sunday) - God's Richly Varied Wisdom (Joshua 1:1-9 and Ephesians 3:1-13)

The Virtue of Penance

What it is and why it's important, according to the writings of St. Bonaventure.

Vertical Typology and Christian Worship

Horace D. Hummel's contribution to a symposium on worship hosted by the Lutheran Concordia Theological Seminary. A quote: "The prayers introducing the Sanctus emphasize that, if the angels praise God without ceasing, what they do is the telos toward which everything else tends. Singing the Sanctus will not someday be replaced by something else. They are words on loan from the heavenly choirs, and give us a sampling of what will occupy us throughout eternity. But already now they allow us to discern the intimate link between the worship we offer and the liturgy of eternity. Our present worship is a sort of apprenticeship for what is to come. Our faces are turned toward God, not toward society. Any instrumental approach to the liturgy, e.g., for outreach or for catechesis, misunderstands the doxological essence of what a vertical typology can teach us, that it is not primarily intended to edify man but to contemplate and thank the Triune God and what the Son came down to do 'for us men and for our salvation.'" (pdf files, requires free Adobe Acrobat Reader.)

Web Gallery of Art

A virtual museum and searchable database of European painting and sculpture of the Gothic, Renaissance and Baroque periods (1150-1800), currently containing over 11,600 reproductions. Commentaries on pictures, biographies of artists are available.

Apologetics

Essential Resources

Catholic Encyclopedia

Invaluable resource for understanding basic questions of the faith.

EWTN Online

The global Catholic television network's website is a goldmine - from daily news to prayer and devotion resources. Just visit and browse. We find especially useful: - Document Library - Audio Library - News - Catholic Q&A - Prayers and Novenas and Litanies - Daily Mass Readings

Pocket Catholic Dictionary

An excellent resource. Definitions written by Father John A. Hardon, S.J.

Remarkable Coversion Stories

The Coming Home Network collects and presents stories from non-Catholic clergy and lay people whom God has led “home” to the Catholic Church. Our Lord Jesus Christ is calling men and women from all backgrounds and walks of life into full communion with His body.

The Catechism of the Catholic Church

An excellent, searchable on-line version, sponsored by the Knights of Columbus.

The Nazareth Master Catechism

An excellent reference that places side-by side five historic summaries of the Catholic faith, including the two "universal" or Church-wide catechisms: The Catechism of the Council of Trent (1566) and The Catechism of the Catholic Church (1992) and three local catechisms: The Catechetical Instructions of St. Thomas Aquinas (1273), The Baltimore Catechism (1891) and The Catechism of Pope St. Pius X (1905). Divided into the following categories. - The Creed - The Sacraments - The Ten Commandments - The Lord's Prayer - The Hail Mary

Selected Topics

'Private Interpretation' in the Church Fathers

A collection of texts that shows how the Church Fathers fought heresies that stemmed from trying to interpret the Bible apart from the Church and the Tradition. By Joseph Gallegos.

'Sola Scriptura' in the Early Church

An interesting collection of texts showing the confusion caused by those rare preachers in the early Church who insisted on appealing to Scripture alone. By Joseph Gallegos.

A History of the Word “Catholic”

Good summary by Steven Ray.

A Primer on Indulgences

A good overview by James Akin.

A Saints FAQ

Ever wonder how many saints there are, how they get chosen and whatever happened to St. Christopher? This is the place you’ve been looking for.

All Scripture

Jeff Cavins helps us see the forest for the trees - a fine look at the single theme that ties the Bible all together.

All The Popes

A handy list.

Avoiding Biblical Paralysis: Sacred Scripture and the Modern Catholic

Curtis Martin's call for a return to the Church's way of reading the Bible. A good introduction to the topic.

Beatification and Canonization

A good historical explanation, from The Catholic Encyclopedia.

Biblical Overview of Penance, Purgatory and Indulgences

Concise treatment by Dave Armstrong.

Catholic Biblical Apologetics: Apologetics Without Apology!

An excellent collection of resources on questions ranging from salvation to annulments.

Catholic Doctrinal Concordance

A good quick reference.

Catholic Evangelism

A good site, with an emphasis on the biblical basis of Catholic belief.

Catholic FAQs #1

A handy guide to frequently asked questions concerning the faith. -Catholic FAQs #2

Catholic Online Saints

Probably the largest listing of saints on the internet. An excellent resource. Be sure to check out these other offerings from Catholic Online: - Patron Saints - Saints Calendar

Church Fathers on Being “Born Again”

This set of passages from the Church Fathers shows that they equated baptism with being “born again,” as Jesus put it in John 3. By Joseph Gallegos.

Church Fathers on Christ’s Real Presence in the Eucharist

A collection of texts illustrating the Church Fathers’ “realist” view of the Eucharist. By Joseph Gallegos.

Church Fathers on Infant Baptism

A collection of documents illustrating the practice of infant baptism in the early Church. By Joseph Gallegos.

Church Fathers on Purgatory

Texts from the early Church that show belief in the existence of Purgatory.

Church Fathers on the 'Catholic Bible'

A good collection of quotes showing how the Church Fathers, to varying degrees, came to embrace the larger Old Testament that now makes up the Catholic version of sacred Scripture. By Joseph Gallegos.

Church Fathers on the Assumption of Mary

Documents illustrating early belief in the bodily assumption of Mary. By Joseph Gallegos.

Church Fathers on the Canon of Scripture

These documents from the early Church illustrate the belief that only the appointed authorities of the Church can determine which books belong in the "canon." By Joseph Gallegos.

Church Fathers on the Immaculate Conception

Documents illustrating that Mary was conceived without the stain of original sin. By Joseph Gallegos.

Church Fathers on the Intercession of the Blessed Virgin Mary

Devotion and intercession of the Blessed Virgin Mary is shown to be a common expression in the writings of the Church Fathers. By Joseph Gallegos.

Church Fathers on the Meaning of Apostolic Succession

This collection of texts shows that the Church Fathers believed that the teachers of the Catholic Church - the Pope and the Bishops - are connected to the Apostles by succession of office. By Joseph Gallegos.

Church Fathers on the Mother of God (Theotokos)

Documents illustrating that the Church Fathers believed Mary was truly the Mother of God. By Joseph Gallegos.

Church Fathers on the Sacrament of Confirmation

A collection of passages by Joseph Gallegos.

Church Fathers on the Sacrament of Extreme Unction (Anointing of the Sick)

Texts that show that the early Church believed in the sacramental nature of the anointing of the sick. By Joseph Gallegos.

Church Fathers on the Sacrament of Holy Matrimony

A collection of texts that shows the early belief that Christ elevated marriage to a sacrament. By Joseph Gallegos.

Church Fathers on the Sacrament of Holy Orders

These texts show the Church Fathers’ assumption that Christ wanted a ministerial priesthood. By Joseph Gallegos.

Church Fathers on the Sacrament of Penance

This collection of texts illustrates the practice of priests hearing confessions in the early Church. By Joseph Gallegos.

Church Fathers on Transubstantiation

These documents illustrate the ancient roots of Catholic belief in the way the bread and wine are changed into Christ’s body and blood.

Church Fathers on Veneration and Invocation of the Saints

A selection of texts that shows the Church Fathers invoking the saints’ intercession in prayer, naming children after them, creating statues and images of them, and preserving their relics. By Joseph Gallegos.

Church Fathers on Veneration of the Blessed Virgin Mary

A collection of texts that shows how veneration of the Blessed Virgin Mary is a recurring theme in the writings of the Church Fathers. By Joseph Gallegos.

Communion as Reunion: The Eucharist

Scott Hahn explains how in the Eucharist, the holy sacrifice of the Mass, Christ gives Himself to His people and establishes the New Covenant.

Doctrinal Comparison

Compares the teaching of the Bible and the early Church Fathers with the teachings of the Catholic Church and with various Protestant denominations.

Eucharist, Holy Meal

Scott Hahn brings to life the biblical background of the Eucharist as a sacrifice and as the establishment of the New Covenant. Focusing on the Biblical concept of covenant, he explains how the Eucharist is the way in which God swears His final and eternal promise to His children.

Five Myths about Seven Books

Mark Shea does a good job debunking Protestant arguments against the "Catholic" Bible.

Going on Vocation: Marriage and Holy Orders

Scott Hahn explores the meaning of these sacraments and offers biblically based advice for young men considering the priesthood and young couples pursuing marriage.

Grace is For-Giving and For-Getting

The sacraments, Scott Hahn explains, are the solemn oaths by which God binds human beings to Himself and makes of them a holy family. He provides an overview of the seven sacraments and their function in God’s family plan.

History of the Doctrine of Penance

Solid history. By Dave Armstrong.

History of the Doctrine of Purgatory

A good survey. By Dave Armstrong.

History of the Doctrine of the Eucharist

A good survey by Dave Armstrong.

History of the Doctrine of the Sacrifice of the Mass

A good survey by Dave Armstrong.

Holy Healing: Penance and Anointing of the Sick

Scott Hahn shows how these sacraments offer spiritual healing.

Holy Healing: Penance and Anointing of the Sick

Scott Hahn shows how these sacraments offer spiritual healing.

How To Explain Purgatory to Protestants

James Akin’s solid approach.

Infallibility

From The Catholic Encyclopedia, an excellent overview of the history and true meaning of this teaching.

Interpreting Scripture in the Church Fathers

A good look at the Church Fathers' approach, drawn from their writings. By Joseph Gallegos.

Justification in Catholic Teaching

By James Akin, a solid review. See also, by Akin: - Justification By Christ Alone - Not By Faith Alone - Salvation, Past, Present and Future

Mary’s Perpetual Virginity in the Church Fathers

Mary was considered ever-virgin in the faith of the Church Fathers, as this collection of texts illustrates. By Joseph Gallegos.

Mary’s Perpetual Virginity: From the Bible to the Reformation

A helpful historical overview that reminds us that the early Reformers shared the traditional Catholic belief that Mary was “ever virgin.”

Mary, Ark of the Covenant

Scott Hahn continues a study of the ways Mary was foretold and prefigured in the Old Testament.

Mary, Holy Mother

Dr. Scott Hahn, founder of The St. Paul Center for Biblical Theology, explains the biblical roots of the Church’s Marian doctrines, focusing on the Books of Genesis and Isaiah.

Peter in Rome

Documents from the Church Fathers illustrating St. Peter's presence in Rome. By Joseph Gallegos.

Peter in the Church Fathers

A collection of texts from the Church Fathers showing St. Peter’s importance and place. By Joseph Gallegos.

Primacy of the Apostolic See in Papal Thought

Documents illustrating the self-claimed authority of the Bishop of Rome. By Joseph Gallegos.

Primacy of the Apostolic See in the Church Fathers

Documents from the Church Fathers showing that the Bishop of Rome had “jurisdictional primacy” in the Church. By Joseph Gallegos.

Purgatory in the Bible

A good consideration of the Scriptural evidence.

Purgatory, Holy Fire

Dr. Scott Hahn, founder of The St. Paul Center for Biblical Theology, explains the Scriptural roots of this misunderstood doctrine, showing how necessary it is to understanding Christ's redemptive work in salvation.

Purgatory, Holy Fire

Dr. Scott Hahn, founder of The St. Paul Center for Biblical Theology, explains the Scriptural roots of this misunderstood doctrine, showing how necessary it is to understanding Christ's redemptive work in salvation.

Sacrament of Penance in the Early Church

A short selection of writings from early Church documents, with commentary by Father William Most.

Saints, Holy Siblings

Approaching veneration of the saints from a biblical perspective, Scott Hahn begins with the Book of Hebrews and the "Old Testament Hall of Fame." He explains how the saints are members of God's family in heaven, the "older siblings" of God's sons and daughters on earth.

Saved in Scripture

By Father William Most. A short, thoughtful look at key Bible texts.

Scriptural Reference Guide

A good guide from Catholic Answers

Signed, Sealed & Delivered: Baptism and Confirmation

Scott Hahn shows how through these two sacraments human beings respond to the divine promise of covenant by pledging themselves to God in Christ.

Sola Gratia, Solo Christo: The Roman Catholic Doctrine of Justification

A look at the Catholic understanding of justification from the perspective of an evangelical protestant. By Richard A. White.

Sola Scriptura: A Blueprint for Anarchy

Patrick Madrid says the Protestant doctrine of "Scripture alone" is unhistorical, unbiblical and unworkable.

The Authority of Scripture in the Church Fathers

A collection of quotes that shows the Church Fathers believed that Scripture could not be isolated from the tradition of the Church. By Joseph Gallegos.

The Bible and the Assumption of Mary

A helpful historical overview.

The Bible and the Church: Both or Neither

Dr. Scott Hahn, founder of The St. Paul Center for Biblical Theology, shows in this excerpt from The Catholic Adult Education Program how the Bible and the Church go together like flesh and blood.

The Church Fathers on Scripture

Short quotes, well organized.

The Church Fathers on the Meaning of “Catholic”

A collection of writings from the Church Fathers that demonstrates their belief that the Church is a visible, authoritative institution, outside of which no person can be saved. By Joseph Gallegos.

The Church is Apostolic

Scott Hahn focuses on one of the unique claims of the Catholic Church: that it represents a real, unbroken chain of authentic oral teaching and power that extends back 2,000 years to the Apostles

The Church is Catholic

Scott Hahn explains the origin and the meaning of the word "Catholic" and why the Church is intended to be the universal community of all believers guided by Christ through His appointed vicar on earth, the Holy Father.

The Church is Holy

Scott Hahn focuses on the holiness of the Catholic Church and on the role of the saints in the Mystical Body of Christ.

The Church is One

Scott Hahn explores why, unlike the various Protestant denominations, the Catholic Church has always emphasized its fundamental unity. Just as there is only One Faith, there is and always has been only One Church, One Lord and One God.

The Council of Trent and Justification

A good summary of the Church's official response to Martin Luther. By Father William Most.

The Divine Inspiration of Scripture in the Church Fathers

These quotes demonstrate how the Church Fathers affirmed the inspiration and divine origin of Sacred Scripture. By Joseph Gallegos.

The Early Church and the Bishop of Rome

A good historical survey by Dave Armstrong.

The Faith of Our Fathers

Father Hugh Barbour, O. Praem., points out the simple historical fact that the office of the Bishop of Rome has always been seen as the final authority in the Church.

The Fourth Cup

Scott Hahn takes a detailed look at what was really going on at the Last Supper.

The Immaculate Conception in Scripture and Tradition

A good overview.

The Justification Debate

Transcript of a debate between Dr. Scott Hahn, founder of The St. Paul Center for Biblical Theology, and Dr. Robert Knudson of Westminster Seminary. The original tape was distributed by Catholic Answers.

The Key To Understanding Mary

James Akin looks at the Biblical understanding of Mary as the “New Eve.”

The Lamb's Supper

Scott Hahn explains the Catholic Mass as a biblical prayer that unites heaven and earth, angels and men, all of creation in an eternal hymn of praise to God.

The Meaning of Sacraments

Dr. Scott Hahn, founder of The St. Paul Center for Biblical Theology, explores the roots of the Catholic understanding of sacrament in the biblical conceptions of oath and covenant.

The Office of the New Testament Priest

A good consideration by James Akin.

The Papacy: God’s Gift to the Church

A good look at the biblical basis of the Church’s teaching. By James Akin.

The Pope, Holy Father

Dr. Scott Hahn on one of the most attacked and misunderstood teachings of the Church.

The Rule of Faith: Scripture and Tradition in the Church Fathers

A good collection of quotations.

The Sacrifice of the Mass in Scripture

A solid review of the biblical texts.

The Splendor of the Church

Dr. Scott Hahn, founder of The St. Paul Center for Biblical Theology, provides an overview of the Church, the Bride of Christ, the Family of God.

Tradition in the Church Fathers

An extensive collection of passages from the Church Fathers illustrating their belief in the authority of tradition. By Joseph Gallegos.

What is Papal Infallibility?

A good treatment by George Sim Johnston.

Top Links

Catholic Answers

One of the oldest and best on the web, the fruit of the work of Karl Keating, James Akin, and Rosalind Moss. The name says it all. These guys are in the business to give you answers. Be sure to read their Starting Out as an Apologist. Also, check out the tracts and other resources available in the: - Library of Catholic Answers

Corunum Apologetic Web Site

Joe Gallegos' excellent collection of the teachings of the Church Fathers. Organized by topic. Essential for beginning to think with "the mind of the Church."

Dave Armstrong's Biblical Evidence for Catholicism

A great site by a self-described "Catholic Apologist and Free-Lance Writer, Joyful Husband, Daddy, & Celtic-American, Nature-, History- and Music-Lover." Scroll down to "48 Topical Index Pages." Be prepared to spend some time browsing.

Steve Ray's Writings

An excellent collection of articles and essays on apologetic themes, by the creator of the website: - Defenders of the Catholic Faith

The Nazareth Resource Library

By James Akin of Catholic Answers. A fine collection of links and original materials.

Audio Resources

Audio Courses

Catholic Life and Practice

Faith and Doctrine

Letter & Spirit with Dr. Scott Hahn & Mike Aquilina

Lord Have Mercy with Dr. Scott Hahn & Mike Aquilina

Purgatory and Last Things

Resources

Sacraments and Covenant

Swear To God with Dr. Scott Hahn & Mike Aquilina

Talking to Non-Catholics

The Bible

The Church and the Papacy

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